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Пример статьи # 4: 48 комментариев

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  1. Logtalk is an object-oriented logic programming language that extends and leverages the Prolog language with a feature set suitable for programming in the large. It provides support for encapsulation and data hiding, separation of concerns and enhanced code reuse. Logtalk uses standard Prolog syntax with the addition of a few operators and directives. The Logtalk language implementation is distributed under an open source license and can run using a Prolog implementation (compliant with official and de facto standards) as the back-end compiler.

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  2. The Squeak programming language is a dialect of Smalltalk. It is object-oriented, class-based, and reflective. It was derived directly from Smalltalk-80 by a group at Apple Computer that included some of the original Smalltalk-80 developers. Its development was continued by the same group at Walt Disney Imagineering, where it was intended for use in internal Disney projects. Later on the group moved on to be supported by HP labs, SAP Labs and most recently Y Combinator. Squeak is cross-platform. Programs produced on one platform run bit-identical on all other platforms, and versions are available for many platforms including the obvious Windows/macOS/linux versions. The Squeak system includes code for generating a new version of the virtual machine (VM) on which it runs. It also includes a VM simulator written in Squeak. For these reasons, it is easily ported.

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  3. S2 (Style System 2) is an object-oriented programming language developed in the late 1990s by Brad Fitzpatrick, Martin «Mart» Atkins, and others for the online journaling service LiveJournal in order to allow users full control over the appearance of their pages. S2 source code is compiled into Perl, which the webserver can then execute directly for individual web page requests. The S2 system is, at its heart, completely general and can be used for almost any web application; however there exists no documentation for the implementation of S2 within other applications, which ties it relatively closely to LiveJournal. This article will make use of LiveJournal’s implementation of S2 for examples. A link to detailed documentation about this implementation can be found at the bottom.

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  4. Planner (often seen in publications as «PLANNER» although it is not an acronym) is a programming language designed by Carl Hewitt at MIT, and first published in 1969. First, subsets such as Micro-Planner and Pico-Planner were implemented, and then essentially the whole language was implemented as Popler by Julian Davies at the University of Edinburgh in the POP-2 programming language. Derivations such as QA4, Conniver, QLISP and Ether (see Scientific Community Metaphor) were important tools in Artificial Intelligence research in the 1970s, which influenced commercial developments such as KEE and ART.

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  5. DATATRIEVE is a database query and report writer tool from Hewlett-Packard. It runs on the OpenVMS operating system, as well as several PDP-11 operating systems. DATATRIEVE’s command structure is nearly plain English, and it is an early example of a Fourth Generation Language (4GL). It works against flat files, indexed files, and databases. Such data files are delimited using record definitions stored in the Common Data Dictionary (CDD), or in RMS files. DATATRIEVE is used at many OpenVMS installations. DATATRIEVE was developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s by a team of software engineers at DEC’s Central Commercial Engineering facilities in Merrimack and Nashua, New Hampshire, under database architect Jim Starkey. Many of the project’s engineers went on to highly visible careers in database management and other software disciplines. DATATRIEVE adopted the wombat as its notional mascot; the program’s help file responded to “HELP WOMBAT” with factual information about real world wombats.

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  6. In computer science, communicating sequential processes (CSP) is a formal language for describing patterns of interaction in concurrent systems. It is a member of the family of mathematical theories of concurrency known as process algebras, or process calculi, based on message passing via channels. CSP was highly influential in the design of the occam programming language, and also influenced the design of programming languages such as Limbo, RaftLib, Go, Crystal, and Clojure’s core.async. CSP was first described in a 1978 paper by Tony Hoare, but has since evolved substantially. CSP has been practically applied in industry as a tool for specifying and verifying the concurrent aspects of a variety of different systems, such as the T9000 Transputer, as well as a secure ecommerce system. The theory of CSP itself is also still the subject of active research, including work to increase its range of practical applicability (e.g., increasing the scale of the systems that can be tractably analyzed).

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  7. Algebraic Logic Functional programming language, also known as ALF, is a programming language which combines functional and logic programming techniques. Its foundation is Horn clause logic with equality which consists of predicates and Horn clauses for logic programming, and functions and equations for functional programming. ALF was designed to be genuine integration of both programming paradigms, and thus any functional expression can be used in a goal literal and arbitrary predicates can occur in conditions of equations. ALF’s operational semantics is based on the resolution rule to solve literals and narrowing to evaluate functional expressions. In order to reduce the number of possible narrowing steps, a leftmost-innermost basic narrowing strategy is used which, it is claimed, can be efficiently implemented. Terms are simplified by rewriting before a narrowing step is applied and equations are rejected if the two sides have different constructors at the top. Rewriting and rejection are supposed to result in a large reduction of the search tree and produce an operational semantics that is more efficient than Prolog’s resolution strategy. Similarly to Prolog, ALF uses a backtracking strategy corresponding to a depth-first search in the derivation tree. The ALF system was designed to be an efficient implementation of the combination of resolution, narrowing, rewriting, and rejection. ALF programs are compiled into instructions of an abstract machine. The abstract machine is based on the Warren Abstract Machine (WAM) with several extensions to implement narrowing and rewriting. In the current ALF implementation programs of this abstract machine are executed by an emulator written in C. In the Carnegie Mellon University Artificial Intelligence Repository, ALF is included as an AI programming language, in particular as a functional/logic programming language Prolog implementation. A user manual describing the language and the use of the system is available. The ALF System runs under Unix and is free.

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  8. See also Pico (disambiguation).Pico is a programming language developed at the Software Languages Lab at Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The language was created to introduce the essentials of programming to non-computer science students. Pico can be seen as an effort to generate a palatable and enjoyable language for people who do not want to study hard for the elegance and power of a language. They have done it by adapting Scheme’s semantics. While designing Pico, the Software Languages Lab was inspired by the Abelson and Sussman’s book «Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs». Furthermore, they were influenced by the teaching of programming at high school or academic level. Pico should be interpreted as ‘small’, the idea was to create a small language for educational purposes.

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  9. TempleOS (formerly J Operating System, SparrowOS and LoseThos) is a biblical-themed lightweight operating system designed to be the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible. It was created by American programmer Terry A. Davis, who developed it alone over the course of a decade after a series of episodes that he later described as a revelation from God. The system was characterized as a modern x86-64 Commodore 64, using an interface similar to a mixture of DOS and Turbo C. Davis proclaimed that the system’s features, such as its 640×480 resolution, 16-color display and single audio voice, were explicitly instructed to him by God. It was programmed with an original variation of C (named HolyC) in place of BASIC, and included an original flight simulator, compiler and kernel. TempleOS was released in 2013 and last updated in 2017. It was received with largely favorable reviews in tech communities and Davis amassed a small online following. One fan described him as a «programming legend», while another, a computer engineer, compared the development of TempleOS to a one-man built skyscraper. Davis died on August 11, 2018.

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  10. Z (pronounced zee plus plus) was an object-oriented extension to the Z specification language. Z is an object-oriented extension to the Z specification language, allowing for the definition of classes, and the relation of classes through inheritance, association or aggregation. The primary construct of Z is a class. A Z class consists of a number of clauses which are optional. Z Class Structure: CLASS ClassName [OWNS List_of_attributes] [FUNCTIONS constant_definitions] [TYPE type_declaration] [ENTENDS list_of_super_classes] [OPERATIONS list_of_state_change_operations_definitions] [RETURNS list_of_query_operations_definitions] [ACTIONS all_operations_declarations] [INVARIANT predicates] [HISTORY RTL_predicates] END CLASS

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  11. MIIS (Meditech Interpretive Information System) is a MUMPS-like programming language that was created by A.Neil Pappalardo and Curt W. Marble, on a DEC PDP at Mass General Hospital from 1964 to 1968. MUMPS evolution took two major directions: MUMPS proper and MIIS. MUMPS became an ANSI and ISO-standard language. When many MUMPS implementations standardized to be compatible, MIIS did not standardize, but became a proprietary system instead.As an example of the differences between MUMPS and MIIS, the value of a logical expression in MUMPS may be false = zero (0) or true = non-zero, canonically, one (1). In MIIS, the value false is the empty string and the value of true is a string consisting of the ASCII delete character (code 127 decimal).There is also a philosophical difference between the dialects. MIIS often takes the approach that code should march along, regardless of possible errors, where MUMPS will error out to prevent more serious problems. For example, when encountering an undefined variable, MUMPS generates an error where MIIS treats it as nil.In the 1980s Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Massachusetts used MIIS to program their Data General Mainframe.In 1986, SCAMC reported that Vancouver General Hospital also had an Integrated Cardiology Patient Management System written in MIIS.The MIIS language has been used in programming library systems as well as health industry systems. The OCLC’s library system is one example. It has also been used to create financial systems for insurance brokers, as seen in Ireland and the UK in the late 1970s.

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  12. Fortress is a discontinued experimental programming language for high-performance computing, created by Sun Microsystems with funding from DARPA’s High Productivity Computing Systems project. One of the language designers was Guy L. Steele Jr., whose previous work includes Scheme, Common Lisp, and Java.

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  13. Orc is a concurrent, nondeterministic computer programming language created by Jayadev Misra at the University of Texas at Austin.Orc provides uniform access to computational services, including distributed communication and data manipulation, through sites. Using four simple concurrency primitives, the programmer orchestrates the invocation of sites to achieve a goal, while managing timeouts, priorities, and failures.

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  14. Transact-SQL (T-SQL) is Microsoft’s and Sybase’s proprietary extension to the SQL (Structured Query Language) used to interact with relational databases. T-SQL expands on the SQL standard to include procedural programming, local variables, various support functions for string processing, date processing, mathematics, etc. and changes to the DELETE and UPDATE statements.Transact-SQL is central to using Microsoft SQL Server. All applications that communicate with an instance of SQL Server do so by sending Transact-SQL statements to the server, regardless of the user interface of the application.Stored procedures in SQL Server are executable server-side routines. The advantage of stored procedures is the ability to pass parameters.

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  15. o:XML is an open source, dynamically typed, general-purpose object-oriented programming language based on XML-syntax. It has threads, exception handling, regular expressions and namespaces. Additionally o:XML has an expression language very similar to XPath that allows functions to be invoked on nodes and node sets.

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  16. Hamilton C shell is a clone of the Unix C shell and utilities for Microsoft Windows created by Nicole Hamilton at Hamilton Laboratories as a completely original work, not based on any prior code. It was first released on OS/2 on December 12, 1988 and on Windows NT in July 1992. The OS/2 version was discontinued in 2003 but the Windows version continues to be actively supported.

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  17. ACC is a near-C compiler for the MS-DOS operating system on the IBM PC line of computers for programs. The compiler and compiled programs will run on any Intel 80386 or above PC running MS-DOS. Included with the compiler are a 386 assembler and a linker for combining multiple object files. There are also two libraries, which are a protected mode DOS extender (based on Thomas Pytel’s, AKA Tran’s PMODE30B + PMODE307 DOS extenders), and a library of functions callable by C programs.Pointers are 4 bytes, and can access all available memory. All memory can be allocated too. The compiler, assembler and linker are all very small and reportedly very fast.

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  18. A# is a port of the Ada programming language to the Microsoft .NET platform. A# is freely distributed by the Department of Computer Science at the United States Air Force Academy as a service to the Ada community under the terms of the GNU General Public License.AdaCore has taken over this development, and announced «GNAT for .NET», which is a fully supported .NET product with all of the features of A# and more.

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  19. A# is a port of the Ada programming language to the Microsoft .NET platform. A# is freely distributed by the Department of Computer Science at the United States Air Force Academy as a service to the Ada community under the terms of the GNU General Public License.AdaCore has taken over this development, and announced «GNAT for .NET», which is a fully supported .NET product with all of the features of A# and more.

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  20. The Utilization Saturation and Errors (USE) Method is a methodology for analyzing the performance of any system. It directs the construction of a checklist, which for server analysis can be used for quickly identifying resource bottlenecks or errors. It begins by posing questions, and then seeks answers, instead of beginning with given metrics (partial answers) and trying to work backwards.

    The resulting USE Method-derived checklists for different operating systems are listed on the left navigation panel (Linux, Solaris, etc). You can customize these for your environment, adding additional tools that your site uses. There is also the Rosetta Stone of Performance Checklists, automatically generated from some of these. Performance monitoring products can make the USE method easier to follow by providing its metrics via an easy-to-use interface.

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