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  1. Red is a computer programming language. Red was made to overcome the limitations of the programming language Rebol. Introduced in 2011 by Nenad Rakocevic, Red is both an imperative and functional programming language. Its syntax and general usage overlaps that of the interpreted Rebol language (which was introduced in 1997). The implementation choices of Red intend to create a full stack programming language: Red can be used for extremely high-level programming (DSLs and GUIs) as well as low-level programming (operating systems and device drivers). Key to the approach is that the language has two parts: Red/System and Red. Red/System is similar to C, but packaged into a Rebol lexical structure – for example, one would write if x > y [print «Hello»] instead of if (x > y) {printf(«Hello\n»);}. Red is a homoiconic language capable of meta-programming, with semantics similar to Rebol’s. Red’s runtime library is written in Red/System, and uses a hybrid approach: it compiles what it can deduce statically and uses an embedded interpreter otherwise. The project roadmap includes a just-in-time compiler for cases in between, but this has not yet been implemented.Red seeks to remain independent of any other toolchain; it does its own code generation. It is therefore possible to cross-compile Red programs from any platform it supports to any other, via a command-line switch. Both Red and Red/System are distributed as open-source software under the modified BSD license. The runtime library is distributed under the more permissive Boost Software License. By version 0.6.4 Red includes a garbage collector «the Simple GC».

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  2. R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis. Polls, data mining surveys, and studies of scholarly literature databases show substantial increases in popularity in recent years. As of January 2019, R ranks 12th in the TIOBE index, a measure of popularity of programming languages.A GNU package, source code for the R software environment is written primarily in C, Fortran and R itself, and is freely available under the GNU General Public License. Pre-compiled binary versions are provided for various operating systems. Although R has a command line interface, there are several graphical user interfaces, such as RStudio, an integrated development environment.

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  3. APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson. Its central datatype is the multidimensional array. It uses a large range of special graphic symbols to represent most functions and operators, leading to very concise code. It has been an important influence on the development of concept modeling, spreadsheets, functional programming, and computer math packages. It has also inspired several other programming languages.

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  4. PARI/GP is a computer algebra system with the main aim of facilitating number theory computations. Versions 2.1.0 and higher are distributed under the GNU General Public License. It runs on most common operating systems.

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  5. Darwin is a closed source programming language developed by Gaston Gonnet and colleagues at ETH Zurich. It is used to develop the OMA orthology inference software, which was also initially developed by Gonnet. The language backend consists of the kernel, responsible for performing simple mathematical calculations, for transporting and storing data and for interpreting the user’s commands, and the library, a set of programs which can perform more complicated calculations. The target audience for the language is the biosciences, so the library consisted of routines such as those to compute pairwise alignments, phylogenetic trees, multiple sequence alignments, and to make secondary structure predictions.

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  6. DRAKON is an algorithmic visual programming and modeling language developed within the Buran space project following ergonomic design principles. The language provides a uniform way to represent flowcharts of any complexity that are easy to read and understand. The DRAKON Editor, which was released in September 2011, is an implementation of the language available in the public domain. It can be used for creating documentation, or for creating visual programs that can be converted to source code in other languages. Unlike UML’s philosophy, DRAKON’s language philosophy is based on being augmented if needed, by using a hybrid language, which can be illustrated as «incrustating code snippets from text language used into shape DRAKON requires». This way, DRAKON always remains a simple visual language that can be used as an augmentation for a programmer who is interested in making their own project code easier to support or other long-term needs for example improving the ergonomics of the coding process or to making code easier to review and understand. The name DRAKON is the Russian acronym for «Ð”ружелюбный Русский Алгоритмический [язык], Который Обеспечивает Наглядность», which translates to «Friendly Russian algorithmic [language] that illustrates (or provides clarity)». The word «Ð½Ð°Ð³Ð»ÑÐ´Ð½Ð¾ÑÑ‚ÑŒ» (pronounced approximately as «naa-glya-dno-st-th») refers to a concept or idea being easy to imagine and understand, and may be translated as «clarity». The DRAKON language can be used both as a modelling/»markup» language (which is considered a standalone «pure DRAKON» program) and as a programming language (as part of a hybrid language). Integration of a stricter, «academic», variant of a markup language into programming, such as provided by DRAKON, adds syntactic sugar allowing users of different programming languages to comprehend each other’s contributions to the overall project and even provide commentary if needed.

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  7. SNOBOL (StriNg Oriented and symBOlic Language) is a series of computer programming languages developed between 1962 and 1967 at AT&T Bell Laboratories by David J. Farber, Ralph E. Griswold and Ivan P. Polonsky, culminating in SNOBOL4. It was one of a number of text-string-oriented languages developed during the 1950s and 1960s; others included COMIT and TRAC. SNOBOL4 stands apart from most programming languages of its era by having patterns as a first-class data type (i.e. a data type whose values can be manipulated in all ways permitted to any other data type in the programming language) and by providing operators for pattern concatenation and alternation. In later object-oriented languages, such as JavaScript, patterns are a type of object, and admit various manipulations. Further, strings generated during execution can be treated as programs and executed (as in the eval function of other languages). SNOBOL4 was quite widely taught in larger US universities in the late 1960s and early 1970s and was widely used in the 1970s and 1980s as a text manipulation language in the humanities. In the 1980s and 1990s its use faded as newer languages such as AWK and Perl made string manipulation by means of regular expressions fashionable. SNOBOL4 patterns subsume BNF grammars, which are equivalent to context-free grammars and more powerful than regular expressions. The «regular expressions» in current versions of AWK and Perl are in fact extensions of regular expressions in the traditional sense, but regular expressions, unlike SNOBOL4 patterns, are not recursive, which gives a distinct computational advantage to SNOBOL4 patterns. (Recursive expressions did appear in Perl 5.10, though, released in December 2007.) One of the designers of SNOBOL, Ralph Griswold, designed successors to SNOBOL4 called SL5 and Icon, which combined the backtracking of SNOBOL4 pattern matching with more standard ALGOL-like structuring, as well as adding some features of their own.

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  8. Obliq is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language designed to make distributed, and locally multi-threaded, computation simple and easy for the programmer, while providing program safety and implicit type system. The interpreter is written in Modula-3, and provides Obliq with full access to Modula-3’s network objects capabilities. A type inference algorithm for record concatenation, subtyping and recursive types has been developed for Obliq, more important it has been proved to be NP-complete and its lowest complexity to be ?(n3) or if under other modeling up to certain conditions down to ?(n2) and its best known implementation runs in ?(n5). Obliq’s syntax is very similar to Modula-3, the biggest difference being that Obliq has no need of explicit typed variables (i.e., a variable can hold any data type allowed by the type checker and if does not accepts one, i.e., a given expression execution error will be thrown) although explicit type declarations are allowed and ignored by the interpreter. The basic data types in the language include booleans, integers, reals, characters, strings, and arrays. Obliq supports the usual set of sequential control structures (conditional, iteration, and exception handling forms), as well as special control forms for concurrency (mutexes and guarded statements). Besides that Obliq’s objects are able to be cloned and safely copied remotely by any machine in a distributed network object and it can be done in a transparent way.Obliq’s large standard library provides strong support for mathematical operations, I/O, persistence, thread control, graphics, and animation. Distributed computation is object-based: objects hold a state, which is local to a particular process. Scope of objects and other variables is purely lexical. Objects can call methods of other objects, even if those objects are on another machine on the network. Obliq objects are simply collections of named fields (similar to slots in Self and Smalltalk), and support inheritance by delegation (like Self). The common uses of Obliq involve programming over networks, 3D animation, and distributed computation over Ethernet LAN as. Obliq is included free with the DEC Modula-3 distribution, but other free versions exist elsewhere including pre-compiled binaries for several operating systems.

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  9. Unicon is a programming language designed by American computer scientist Clint Jeffery with collaborators including Shamim Mohamed, Jafar Al Gharaibeh, Robert Parlett and others. Unicon descended from Icon and a preprocessor for Icon called IDOL. Compared with Icon, Unicon offers better access to the operating system as well as support for object-oriented programming. Unicon began life as a merger of three popular Icon extensions: an OO preprocessor named Idol, a POSIX filesystem and networking interface, and an ODBC facility. The name is shorthand for «Unified Extended Dialect of Icon.» Compared with Icon, many of the new features of Unicon are extensions to the I/O and system interface, to complement Icon’s core control and data structures. Rather than providing lower-level APIs as-is from C, Unicon implements higher level and easier to use facilities, enabling rapid development of graphic- and network-intensive applications in addition to Icon’s core strengths in text and file processing. classes and packages exceptions as a contributed class library — see mailing list loadable child programs monitoring of child programs dynamic loading of C modules (some platforms) multiple inheritance, with novel semantics ODBC database access dbm files can be used as associative arrays posix system interface 3D graphics true concurrency (on platforms supporting Posix threads)When run as a graphical IDE, the Unicon program ui.exe continues to offer links to Icon help. The official Unicon programming book in PDF format is a popular way to learn Unicon. The book includes an introduction to object-oriented development as well as UML. It includes useful chapters on topics such as the use of Unicon for CGI. Recent additions to Unicon include true concurrency. Unicon is not yet Unicode-compliant. There are opportunities posted at a help-wanted page.

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  10. In software development, Make is a build automation tool that automatically builds executable programs and libraries from source code by reading files called Makefiles which specify how to derive the target program. Though integrated development environments and language-specific compiler features can also be used to manage a build process, Make remains widely used, especially in Unix and Unix-like operating systems. Besides building programs, Make can be used to manage any project where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others change.

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  11. Stateflow (developed by MathWorks) is a control logic tool used to model reactive systems via state machines and flow charts within a Simulink model. Stateflow uses a variant of the finite-state machine notation established by David Harel, enabling the representation of hierarchy, parallelism and history within a state chart. Stateflow also provides state transition tables and truth tables.

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  12. A microassembler is a computer program that helps prepare a microprogram, called firmware, to control the low level operation of a computer in much the same way an assembler helps prepare higher level code for a processor. The difference is that the microprogram is usually only developed by the processor manufacturer and works intimately with the computer hardware. On a microprogrammed computer the microprogram implements the operations of the instruction set in which any normal program (including both application programs and operating systems) is written. The use of a microprogram allows the manufacturer to fix certain mistakes, including working around hardware design errors, without modifying the hardware. Another means of employing microassembler-generated microprograms is in allowing the same hardware to run different instruction sets. After it is assembled, the microprogram is then loaded to a control store to become part of the logic of a CPU’s control unit. Some microassemblers are more generalized and are not targeted at a single computer architecture. For example, through the use of macro-assembler-like capabilities, Digital Equipment Corporation used their MICRO2 microassembler for a very wide range of computer architectures and implementations. If a given computer implementation supports a writeable control store, the microassembler is usually provided to customers as a means of writing customized microcode. In the process of microcode assembly it is helpful to verify the microprogram with emulation tools before distribution. Nowadays, microcoding has experienced a revival, since it is possible to correct and optimize the firmware of processing units already manufactured or sold, in order to adapt to specific operating systems or to fix hardware bugs. However, a commonly usable microassembler for today’s CPUs is not available to manipulate the microcode. Unfortunately, knowledge of a processor’s microcode is usually considered proprietary information so it is difficult to obtain information about how to modify it.

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  13. Strongtalk is a Smalltalk environment with optional static typing support. Strongtalk can make some compile time checks, and offer stronger type safety guarantees; this is the source of its name. It is non-commercial, though it was originally a commercial project developed by a small startup company named LongView Technologies (trading as Animorphic Systems).

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  14. Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) was an American multinational corporation that provided information technology (IT) services and professional services. On April 3, 2017, it merged with the Enterprise Services line of business of HP Enterprise (formerly Electronic Data Systems) to create DXC Technology.

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  15. Cecil is a pure object-oriented programming language that was developed by Craig Chambers at the University of Washington in 1992 to be part of the Vortex project there. Cecil has many similarities to other object-oriented languages, most notably Objective-C, Modula-3, and Self. The main goals of the project were extensibility, orthogonality, efficiency, and ease-of-use. The language supports multiple dispatch and multimethods, dynamic inheritance, and optional static type checking. Unlike most other OOP systems, Cecil allows subtyping and code inheritance to be used separately, allowing run-time or external extension of object classes or instances. Like Objective-C, all object services in Cecil are invoked by message passing, and the language supports run-time class identification. These features allow Cecil to support dynamic, exploratory programming styles. Parameterized types and methods (generics, polymorphism), garbage collection, and delegation are also supported. Cecil also supports a module mechanism for isolating independent libraries or packages. Cecil does not presently support threads or any other form of concurrency. A standard library for Cecil is also available and includes various collection, utility, system, I/O, and GUI classes. The Diesel language was the successor of Cecil.There was also an assembler type language known as Cesil (Computer Education in Schools Instructional Language) used in the late-1970s developed by ICL. It was quite similar to the later language MASM.

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  16. NWScript is the scripting language developed by BioWare for the role-playing video game Neverwinter Nights. It is based on the C programming language and is implemented in the Aurora toolset. Neverscript, an open source 3rd party editor, has been created for the Mac OS X and Linux versions of NWN because the Aurora toolset has not been ported to those platforms. NWScript is also used in the video games The Witcher, Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic and Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic II The Sith Lords, which use the Odyssey Engine. Neverwinter Nights 2, the sequel to the original NWN, features a modified version of this scripting language.

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  17. Squirrel is a high level imperative, object-oriented programming language, designed to be a lightweight scripting language that fits in the size, memory bandwidth, and real-time requirements of applications like video games and hardware such as Electric Imp. MirthKit, a simple toolkit for making and distributing open source, cross-platform 2D games, uses Squirrel for its platform. It is used extensively by Code::Blocks for scripting and was also used in Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles: My Life as a King. It is also used in Left 4 Dead 2, Portal 2 and Thimbleweed Park for scripted events.

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  18. SETL (SET Language) is a very high-level programming language based on the mathematical theory of sets. It was originally developed by (Jack) Jacob T. Schwartz at the New York University (NYU) Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in the late 1960s.

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  19. High Level Assembly (HLA) is a high-level assembly language developed by Randall Hyde. It allows the use of higher-level language constructs to aid both beginners and advanced assembly developers. It fully supports advanced data types and object-oriented programming. It uses a syntax loosely based on several high-level programming languages (HLLs), such as Pascal, Ada, Modula-2, and C , to allow creating readable assembly language programs, and to allow HLL programmers to learn HLA as fast as possible.

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  20. F is a modular, compiled, numeric programming language, designed for scientific programming and scientific computation. F was developed as a modern Fortran, thus making it a subset of Fortran 95. It combines both numerical and data abstraction features from these languages. F is also backwards compatible with Fortran 77, allowing calls to Fortran 77 programs. F was first included in the g95 compiler.

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  21. A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a command line user interface for Unix-like operating systems. The shell is both an interactive command language and a scripting language, and is used by the operating system to control the execution of the system using shell scripts.Users typically interact with a Unix shell using a terminal emulator; however, direct operation via serial hardware connections or Secure Shell are common for server systems. All Unix shells provide filename wildcarding, piping, here documents, command substitution, variables and control structures for condition-testing and iteration.

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  22. CorVision is a fourth generation programming tool (4GL) currently owned by Attunity, Inc. CorVision was developed by Cortex Corporation for the VAX/VMS ISAM environment. Although Cortex beta tested CorVision-10 which was generated for PCs but CorVision itself stayed anchored on VMS. CorVision-10 proved more difficult than hoped, and was never released.

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  23. The Z shell (Zsh) is a Unix shell that can be used as an interactive login shell and as a command interpreter for shell scripting. Zsh is an extended Bourne shell with a large number of improvements, including some features of Bash, ksh, and tcsh.

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  24. LPC (short for Lars Pensj? C) is an object-oriented programming language derived from C and developed originally by Lars Pensj? to facilitate MUD building on LPMuds. Though designed for game development, its flexibility has led to it being used for a variety of purposes, and to its evolution into the language Pike.LPC syntax places it in the family of C-like languages, with C and C its strongest influences.

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  25. Kotlin is a statically typed, cross-platform, general-purpose programming language with type inference. Kotlin is designed to interoperate fully with Java, and the JVM version of its standard library depends on the Java Class Library, but type inference allows its syntax to be more concise. Kotlin mainly targets the JVM, but also compiles to JavaScript or native code (via LLVM). Kotlin is sponsored by JetBrains, a software development company based in Prague, and is also backed by Google under the Kotlin Foundation. Kotlin is officially supported by Google for mobile development on Android. Since the release of Android Studio 3.0 in October 2017, Kotlin is included as an alternative to the standard Java compiler. The Android Kotlin compiler lets the user choose between targeting Java 6 or Java 8 compatible bytecode.

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  26. POP-11 is a reflective, incrementally compiled programming language with many of the features of an interpreted language. It is the core language of the Poplog programming environment developed originally by the University of Sussex, and recently in the School of Computer Science at the University of Birmingham, which hosts the Poplog website. POP-11 is an evolution of the language POP-2, developed in Edinburgh University, and features an open stack model (like Forth, among others). It is mainly procedural, but supports declarative language constructs, including a pattern matcher, and is mostly used for research and teaching in artificial intelligence, although it has features sufficient for many other classes of problems. It is often used to introduce symbolic programming techniques to programmers of more conventional languages like Pascal, who find POP syntax more familiar than that of Lisp. One of POP-11’s features is that it supports first-class functions. POP-11 is the core language of the Poplog system. The availability of the compiler and compiler subroutines at run-time (a requirement for incremental compilation) gives it the ability to support a far wider range of extensions than would be possible using only a macro facility. This made it possible for incremental compilers to be added for Prolog, Common Lisp and Standard ML, which could be added as required to support either mixed language development or development in the second language without using any POP-11 constructs. This made it possible for Poplog to be used by teachers, researchers, and developers who were interested in only one of the languages. The most successful product developed in POP-11 was the Clementine data-mining system, developed by ISL. After SPSS bought ISL they decided to port Clementine to C and Java, and eventually succeeded with great effort (and perhaps some loss of the flexibility provided by the use of an AI language). POP-11 was for a time available only as part of an expensive commercial package (Poplog), but since about 1999 it has been freely available as part of the Open Source version of Poplog, including various additional packages and teaching libraries. An online version of ELIZA using POP-11 is available at Birmingham. At the University of Sussex, David Young used POP-11 in combination with C and Fortran to develop a suite of teaching and interactive development tools for image processing and vision, and has made them available in the Popvision extension to Poplog.

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  27. LaTeX ( LAH-tekh or LAY-tekh; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system. When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text found in WYSIWYG («what you see is what you get») word processors like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer and Apple Pages. The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references. A TeX distribution such as TeX Live or MikTeX is used to produce an output file (such as PDF or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution. Within the typesetting system, its name is stylised as LaTeX. LaTeX is widely used in academia for the communication and publication of scientific documents in many fields, including mathematics, statistics, computer science, engineering, chemistry, physics, economics, linguistics, quantitative psychology, philosophy, and political science. It also has a prominent role in the preparation and publication of books and articles that contain complex multilingual materials, such as Tamil, Sanskrit and Greek. LaTeX uses the TeX typesetting program for formatting its output, and is itself written in the TeX macro language. LaTeX can be used as a standalone document preparation system or as an intermediate format. In the latter role, for example, it is sometimes used as part of a pipeline for translating DocBook and other XML-based formats to PDF. The typesetting system offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing of tables and figures, chapter and section headings, the inclusion of graphics, page layout, indexing and bibliographies. Like TeX, LaTeX started as a writing tool for mathematicians and computer scientists, but from early in its development it has also been taken up by scholars who needed to write documents that include complex math expressions or non-Latin scripts, such as Arabic, Sanskrit and Chinese.LaTeX is intended to provide a high-level language that accesses the power of TeX in an easier way for writers. In short, TeX handles the layout side, while LaTeX handles the content side for document processing. LaTeX comprises a collection of TeX macros and a program to process LaTeX documents. Because the plain TeX formatting commands are elementary, it provides authors with ready-made commands for formatting and layout requirements such as chapter headings, footnotes, cross-references and bibliographies. LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport at SRI International. The current version is LaTeX2e (stylised as LaTeX2?). LaTeX is free software and is distributed under the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL).

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  28. LIS (Language d’Implementation de Syst?mes) was a system implementation programming language designed by Jean Ichbiah, who later designed Ada. LIS was used to implement the compiler for the Ada-0 subset of Ada at Karlsruhe on the BS2000 Siemens operating system. Later on the Karlsruhe Ada compilation system got rewritten in Ada-0 itself, which was easy, because LIS and Ada-0 are very close.

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  29. Script.NET or S# is a metaprogramming language that provides scripting functionality in Microsoft .NET applications, allowing runtime execution of custom functionality, similar to VBA in Microsoft Office applications. The syntax of Script.NET is similar to JavaScript. It is designed to be simple and efficient scripting language allowing to customize .NET applications. The language has a true runtime interpreter, and it is executed without generating additional in-memory assemblies. Script.NET is an open-source project.

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  30. Cg (short for C for Graphics) is a high-level shading language developed by Nvidia in close collaboration with Microsoft for programming vertex and pixel shaders. Cg is based on the C programming language and although they share the same syntax, some features of C were modified and new data types were added to make Cg more suitable for programming graphics processing units. This language is only suitable for GPU programming and is not a general programming language. The Cg compiler outputs DirectX or OpenGL shader programs. Since 2012, Cg was deprecated, with no additional development or support available.

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  31. C (, as in the letter c) is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, including operating systems, as well as various application software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems. C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1972 and 1973 at Bell Labs. It was created to make utilities running on Unix. Later, it is applied to re-implementing the kernel of the Unix operating system. Through 1980s, C gradually gained popularity. Nowadays, it is one of the most widely used programming languages with C compilers from various vendors available for the majority of existing computer architectures and operating systems. C has been standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) since 1989 (see ANSI C) and subsequently by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). C is an imperative procedural language. It was designed to be compiled using a relatively straightforward compiler, to provide low-level access to memory, to provide language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, and to require minimal run-time support. Despite its low-level capabilities, the language was designed to encourage cross-platform programming. A standards-compliant C program that is written with portability in mind can be compiled for a very wide variety of computer platforms and operating systems with few changes to its source code. The language has become available on a very wide range of platforms, from embedded microcontrollers to supercomputers.

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  32. ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming, originally Allgemeiner Berichts-Aufbereitungs-Prozessor, German for «general report creation processor») is a high-level programming language created by the German software company SAP SE. It is currently positioned, alongside Java, as the language for programming the SAP Application Server, which is part of the NetWeaver platform for building business applications.

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  33. MIMIC, known in capitalized form only, is a former simulation computer language developed 1964 by H. E. Petersen, F. J. Sansom and L. M. Warshawsky of Systems Engineering Group within the Air Force Materiel Command at the Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, United States. It is an expression-oriented continuous block simulation language, but capable of incorporating blocks of FORTRAN-like algebra. MIMIC is a further development from MIDAS (Modified Integration Digital Analog Simulator), which represented analog computer design. Written completely in FORTRAN but one routine in COMPASS, and ran on Control Data supercomputers, MIMIC is capable of solving much larger simulation models. With MIMIC, ordinary differential equations describing mathematical models in several scientific disciplines as in engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, economics and as well as in social sciences can easily be solved by numerical integration and the results of the analysis are listed or drawn in diagrams. It also enables the analysis of nonlinear dynamic conditions. The MIMIC software package, written as FORTRAN overlay programs, executes input statements of the mathematical model in six consecutive passes. Simulation programs written in MIMIC are compiled rather than interpreted. The core of the simulation package is a variable step numerical integrator of fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Many useful functions related to electrical circuit elements exist besides some mathematical functions found in most scientific programming languages. There is no need to sort the statements in order of dependencies of the variables, since MIMIC does it internally. Parts of the software organized in overlays are: MIMIN (input)– reads in user simulation program and data, MIMCO (compiler) – compiles the user program and creates an in-core array of instructions, MIMSO (sort)– sorts the instructions array after dependencies of variables, MIMAS (assembler) – converts the BCD instructions into machine-oriented code, MIMEX (execute)– executes the user program by integrating, MIMOUT (output)– puts out the data as a list or diagram of data.

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  34. Go (often referred to as Golang) is a statically typed, compiled programming language designed at Google by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. Go is syntactically similar to C, but with the added benefits of memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency.There are two major implementations: Google’s self-hosting compiler toolchain targeting multiple operating systems, mobile devices, and WebAssembly. gccgo, a GCC frontend.A third compiler, GopherJS, compiles Go to JavaScript for front-end web development.

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  35. Standard ML (SML; «Standard Meta Language») is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference. It is popular among compiler writers and programming language researchers, as well as in the development of theorem provers. SML is a modern dialect of ML, the programming language used in the Logic for Computable Functions (LCF) theorem-proving project. It is distinctive among widely used languages in that it has a formal specification, given as typing rules and operational semantics in The Definition of Standard ML (1990, revised and simplified as The Definition of Standard ML (Revised) in 1997).

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  36. JOSS (an acronym for JOHNNIAC Open Shop System) was one of the very first interactive, time-sharing programming languages. JOSS I, developed by J. Clifford Shaw at RAND, was implemented on the JOHNNIAC computer in May 1963, supporting five consoles, at ten remote consoles since January 1964. The final version was deployed in January 1965.JOSS was written in a symbolic assembly language called EasyFox (E and F in the US military’s phonetic alphabet of that time). EasyFox was also developed by Cliff Shaw. JOSS was dubbed «The Helpful Assistant» for its conversational user interface. Originally green/black typewriter ribbons were used in its terminals with green being used for user input and black for the computer’s response. Mathematically, JOSS was interesting because it stored all numbers as an integer and a decimal exponent. This means calculations were exact decimal values, as opposed to floating point calculations. One third plus one third plus one third was exactly one. Any command that was not understood elicited the response «Eh?» or «SORRY». JOSS II, was developed by Charles L. Baker, Joseph W. Smith, Irwin D. Greenwald, and G. Edward Bryan for the PDP-6 computer between 1964 and February 1966. Many variants of JOSS were developed and implemented on a variety of platforms. Some of these variants remained very similar to the original: TELCOMP, FOCAL, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series), AID (PDP-10); while others, such as MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.

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  37. MQL4 (MetaQuotes Language 4) and MQL5 (MetaQuotes Language 5) are integrated programming languages designed for developing trading robots, technical market indicators, scripts and function libraries within the MetaTrader software. The primary objective of MQL4 and MQL5 is automation of trading and facilitation of operational analysis. MQL4 and MQL5 comprises an extensive codebase source code library used for developing trading robots.

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  38. Common Intermediate Language (CIL), formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL), is the lowest-level human-readable programming language defined by the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) specification and is used by the .NET Framework, .NET Core, and Mono. Languages which target a CLI-compatible runtime environment compile to CIL, which is assembled into an object code that has a bytecode-style format. CIL is an object-oriented assembly language, and is entirely stack-based. Its bytecode is translated into native code or—most commonly—executed by a virtual machine. CIL was originally known as Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) during the beta releases of the .NET languages. Due to standardization of C# and the Common Language Infrastructure, the bytecode is now officially known as CIL.

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  39. PEARL, or Process and experiment automation realtime language, is a computer programming language designed for multitasking and real-time programming. Being a high-level language, it is fairly cross-platform. Since 1977, the language has been going under several standardization steps by the Deutsches Institut f?r Normung. The current version is PEARL-90, which was standardized in 1998 as DIN 66253-2. PEARL is not to be confused with the similarly named Perl, an entirely unrelated programming language created by Larry Wall in 1987.

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  40. This article is about the programming language. For the university, see Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral.ESPOL (short for Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language) was a superset of ALGOL 60 that provided capabilities of what would later be known as Mohols, machine oriented high order languages, such as interrupting a processor on a multiprocessor system (the Burroughs large systems were multiprocessor processor systems). ESPOL was used to write the MCP (Master Control Program) on Burroughs computer systems from the B5000 to the B6700. The single-pass compiler for ESPOL could compile over 250 lines per second. ESPOL was superseded by NEWP.

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  41. SQR (Hyperion SQR Production Reporting, Part of OBIEE) is a programming language designed for generating reports from database management systems. The name is an acronym of Structured Query Reporter, which suggests its relationship to SQL (Structured Query Language). Any SQL statement can be embedded in an SQR program.

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  42. Amiga E, or very often simply E, is a programming language created by Wouter van Oortmerssen on the Amiga. He has since moved on to develop the SHEEP programming language for the new AmigaDE platform and the CryScript language (also known as DOG) used during the development of the video game Far Cry.

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  43. Easy Programming Language (EPL, Chinese: ???) is a Chinese programming language. It has the largest community of all non-English-based programming languages. EPL is somewhat popular in China because it features a full Chinese environment.

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  44. The Wolfram Language is a general multi-paradigm computational communication language developed by Wolfram Research and is the programming language of the mathematical symbolic computation program Mathematica and the Wolfram Programming Cloud. It emphasizes symbolic computation, functional programming, and rule-based programming and can employ arbitrary structures and data.It includes built-in functions for generating and running Turing machines, creating graphics and audio, analyzing 3D models, matrix manipulations, and solving differential equations. It is extensively documented.The Wolfram language was released for the Raspberry Pi in 2013 with the goal of making it free for all Raspberry Pi users. It was included in the recommended software bundle that the Raspberry Pi Foundation provides for beginners, which caused some controversy due to the Wolfram language’s proprietary nature. Plans to port the Wolfram language to the Intel Edison were announced after the board’s introduction at CES 2014. There was also a short lived proposal to make Wolfram libraries compatible with the Unity game engine, giving game developers access to the language’s high level functions.

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  45. MAD (Michigan Algorithm Decoder) is a programming language and compiler for the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709, IBM 7090, IBM 7040, UNIVAC 1107, UNIVAC 1108, Philco 210-211, and eventually the IBM S/370 mainframe computers. Developed in 1959 at the University of Michigan by Bernard Galler, Bruce Arden and Robert M. Graham, MAD is a variant of the ALGOL language. It was widely used to teach programming at colleges and universities during the 1960s and played a minor role in the development of CTSS, Multics, and the Michigan Terminal System computer operating systems.The archives at the Bentley Historical Library of the University of Michigan contain reference materials on the development of MAD and MAD/I, including three linear feet of printouts with hand-written notations and original printed manuals.

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  46. Visual DialogScript (VDS) is an interpreted programming language for Microsoft Windows. It can be used to create small, fast programs. VDS has a large number of dialog and graphical elements available to create professional looking programs. VDS programs have access to the Windows API; therefore, it is possible to write applications that can perform the same advanced tasks as other programming languages such as Visual Basic, C , or Delphi.

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  47. TACPOL (Tactical Procedure Oriented Language) is a block structured programming language developed by the United States Army for the TACFIRE Tactical Fire Direction command and control application. TACPOL is similar to PL/I.

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  48. Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the languages Modula-2 and Oberon.

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  49. Opa is an open-source programming language for developing scalable web applications. It can be used for both client-side and server-side scripting, where complete programs are written in Opa and subsequently compiled to Node.js on the server and JavaScript on the client, with the compiler automating all communication between the two. Opa implements strong, static typing, which can be helpful in protecting against security issues such as SQL injections and cross-site scripting attacks.The language was first officially presented at the OWASP conference in 2010, and the source code was released on GitHub in June 2011, under a GNU Affero General Public License. Later, the license changed to the MIT license for the framework part (library) and AGPL for the compiler so that applications written in Opa can be released under any license, proprietary or open source.

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  50. S3 is a structured, imperative high-level computer programming language. It was developed by the UK company International Computers Limited (ICL) for its 2900 Series mainframes. It is a system programming language with syntax influenced by ALGOL 68 but with data types and operators aligned to those offered by the 2900 Series. It was the implementation language of the operating system VME.

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  51. BlooP and FlooP are simple programming languages designed by Douglas Hofstadter to illustrate a point in his book G?del, Escher, Bach. BlooP is a non-Turing-complete programming language whose main control flow structure is a bounded loop (i.e. recursion is not permitted). All programs in the language must terminate, and this language can only express primitive recursive functions.FlooP is identical to BlooP except that it supports unbounded loops; it is a Turing-complete language and can express all computable functions. For example, it can express the Ackermann function, which (not being primitive recursive) cannot be written in BlooP. Borrowing from standard terminology in mathematical logic, Hofstadter calls FlooP’s unbounded loops MU-loops. Like all Turing-complete programming languages, FlooP suffers from the halting problem: programs might not terminate, and it is not possible, in general, to decide which programs do. BlooP and FlooP can be regarded as models of computation, and have sometimes been used in teaching computability.

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  52. In computer programming, Yoix is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. The Yoix interpreter is implemented using standard Java technology without any add-on packages and requires only a Sun-compliant JVM to operate. Initially developed by AT&T Labs researchers for internal use, it has been available as free and open source software since late 2000.

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  53. The Netwide Assembler (NASM) is an assembler and disassembler for the Intel x86 architecture. It can be used to write 16-bit, 32-bit (IA-32) and 64-bit (x86-64) programs. NASM is considered to be one of the most popular assemblers for Linux.NASM was originally written by Simon Tatham with assistance from Julian Hall. As of 2016, it is maintained by a small team led by H. Peter Anvin. It is open-source software released under the terms of a simplified (2-clause) BSD license.

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  54. A# is a port of the Ada programming language to the Microsoft .NET platform. A# is freely distributed by the Department of Computer Science at the United States Air Force Academy as a service to the Ada community under the terms of the GNU General Public License.AdaCore has taken over this development, and announced «GNAT for .NET», which is a fully supported .NET product with all of the features of A# and more.

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  55. ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming, originally Allgemeiner Berichts-Aufbereitungs-Prozessor, German for «general report creation processor») is a high-level programming language created by the German software company SAP SE. It is currently positioned, alongside Java, as the language for programming the SAP Application Server, which is part of the NetWeaver platform for building business applications.

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  56. A++ stands for abstraction plus reference plus synthesis which is used as a name for the minimalistic programming language that is built on ARS.ARS is an abstraction from the Lambda Calculus, taking its three basic operations, and giving them a more general meaning, thus providing a foundation for the three major programming paradigms: functional programming, object-oriented programming and imperative programming.ARS Based Programming is used as a name for programming which consists mainly of applying patterns derived from ARS to programming in any language.The technical texts in this article are taken from the online version of the 1st edition of the A++-book.The 2nd edition of the book A++ The Smallest Programming Language in the World (292 pages) was published in 2018.

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  57. A++ stands for abstraction plus reference plus synthesis which is used as a name for the minimalistic programming language that is built on ARS.ARS is an abstraction from the Lambda Calculus, taking its three basic operations, and giving them a more general meaning, thus providing a foundation for the three major programming paradigms: functional programming, object-oriented programming and imperative programming.ARS Based Programming is used as a name for programming which consists mainly of applying patterns derived from ARS to programming in any language.The technical texts in this article are taken from the online version of the 1st edition of the A++-book.The 2nd edition of the book A++ The Smallest Programming Language in the World (292 pages) was published in 2018.

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  58. ABC ALGOL is an extension of the Algol 60 programming language with arbitrary data structures and user-defined operators, targeted for symbolic mathematics. Despite its advances, it was never used as widely as Algol proper.

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  59. ABC ALGOL is an extension of the Algol 60 programming language with arbitrary data structures and user-defined operators, targeted for symbolic mathematics. Despite its advances, it was never used as widely as Algol proper.

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  60. A microassembler is a computer program that helps prepare a microprogram, called firmware, to control the low level operation of a computer in much the same way an assembler helps prepare higher level code for a processor. The difference is that the microprogram is usually only developed by the processor manufacturer and works intimately with the computer hardware. On a microprogrammed computer the microprogram implements the operations of the instruction set in which any normal program (including both application programs and operating systems) is written. The use of a microprogram allows the manufacturer to fix certain mistakes, including working around hardware design errors, without modifying the hardware. Another means of employing microassembler-generated microprograms is in allowing the same hardware to run different instruction sets. After it is assembled, the microprogram is then loaded to a control store to become part of the logic of a CPU’s control unit.Some microassemblers are more generalized and are not targeted at a single computer architecture. For example, through the use of macro-assembler-like capabilities, Digital Equipment Corporation used their MICRO2 microassembler for a very wide range of computer architectures and implementations.If a given computer implementation supports a writeable control store, the microassembler is usually provided to customers as a means of writing customized microcode.In the process of microcode assembly it is helpful to verify the microprogram with emulation tools before distribution. Nowadays, microcoding has experienced a revival, since it is possible to correct and optimize the firmware of processing units already manufactured or sold, in order to adapt to specific operating systems or to fix hardware bugs. However, a commonly usable microassembler for today’s CPUs is not available to manipulate the microcode. Unfortunately, knowledge of a processor’s microcode is usually considered proprietary information so it is difficult to obtain information about how to modify it.

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  61. DATATRIEVE is a database query and report writer tool from Hewlett-Packard. It runs on the OpenVMS operating system, as well as several PDP-11 operating systems. DATATRIEVE’s command structure is nearly plain English, and it is an early example of a Fourth Generation Language (4GL). It works against flat files, indexed files, and databases. Such data files are delimited using record definitions stored in the Common Data Dictionary (CDD), or in RMS files. DATATRIEVE is used at many OpenVMS installations.DATATRIEVE was developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s by a team of software engineers at DEC’s Central Commercial Engineering facilities in Merrimack and Nashua, New Hampshire, under database architect Jim Starkey. Many of the project’s engineers went on to highly visible careers in database management and other software disciplines.DATATRIEVE adopted the wombat as its notional mascot; the program’s help file responded to “HELP WOMBAT” with factual information about real world wombats.

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  62. OCaml ( oh-KAM-?l) (formerly Objective Caml) is the main implementation of the Caml programming language created by Xavier Leroy, J?r?me Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier R?my, Asc?nder Su?rez, and others in 1996. A member of the ML family, OCaml extends Caml with object-oriented features.The OCaml toolchain includes an interactive top-level interpreter, a bytecode compiler, an optimizing native code compiler, a reversible debugger, and a package manager (OPAM). It has a large standard library, making it useful for many of the same applications as Python or Perl, and has robust modular and object-oriented programming constructs that make it applicable for large-scale software engineering.The acronym CAML originally stood for Categorical Abstract Machine Language, although OCaml omits this abstract machine. OCaml is a free and open-source software project managed and principally maintained by the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (INRIA). In the early 2000s, many languages adopted elements from OCaml, notably F# and Scala.

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  63. Oz is a multiparadigm programming language, developed in the Programming Systems Lab at Universit? catholique de Louvain, for programming language education. It has a canonical textbook: Concepts, Techniques, and Models of Computer Programming.Oz was first designed by Gert Smolka and his students in 1991. In 1996, development of Oz continued in cooperation with the research group of Seif Haridi and Peter Van Roy at the Swedish Institute of Computer Science. Since 1999, Oz has been continually developed by an international group, the Mozart Consortium, which originally consisted of Saarland University, the Swedish Institute of Computer Science, and the Universit? catholique de Louvain. In 2005, the responsibility for managing Mozart development was transferred to a core group, the Mozart Board, with the express purpose of opening Mozart development to a larger community.The Mozart Programming System is the primary implementation of Oz. It is released with an open source license by the Mozart Consortium. Mozart has been ported to Unix, FreeBSD, Linux, Windows, and macOS.

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  64. TXL is a special-purpose programming language originally designed by Charles Halpern-Hamu and James Cordy at the University of Toronto in 1985. The acronym «TXL» originally stood for «Turing eXtender Language» after the language’s original purpose, the specification and rapid prototyping of variants and extensions of the Turing programming language, but no longer has any meaningful interpretation.Modern TXL is specifically designed for creating, manipulating and rapidly prototyping language-based descriptions, tools and applications using source transformation. It is a hybrid functional / rule-based language using first order functional programming at the higher level and term rewriting at the lower level. The formal semantics and implementation of TXL are based on formal term rewriting, but the term structures are largely hidden from the user due to the example-like style of pattern specification.Each TXL program has two components: a description of the source structures to be transformed, specified as a (possibly ambiguous) context-free grammar using an extended Backus–Naur Form; and a set of tree transformation rules, specified using pattern / replacement pairs combined using first order functional programming. TXL is designed to allow explicit programmer control over the interpretation, application, order and backtracking of both parsing and rewriting rules, allowing for expression of a wide range of grammar-based techniques such as agile parsing.The first component parses the input expression into a tree using pattern-matching. The second component uses Term-rewriting in a manner similar to Yacc to produce the transformed output.TXL is most commonly used in software analysis and reengineering tasks such as design recovery, and in rapid prototyping of new programming languages and dialects.

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  65. Vala is an object-oriented programming language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code and uses the GObject system.Vala is syntactically similar to C# and includes notable features such as: anonymous functions, signals, properties, generics, assisted memory management, exception handling, type inference, and foreach statements. Its developers, J?rg Billeter and Raffaele Sandrini, wanted to bring these features to the plain C runtime with little overhead and no special runtime support by targeting the GObject object system. Rather than compiling directly to machine code or assembly language, it compiles to a lower level intermediate language. It source-to-source compiles to C, which is then compiled with a C compiler for a given platform, such as GCC.For memory management, the GObject system provides reference counting. In C, a programmer must manually manage adding and removing references, but in Vala, managing such reference counts is automated if a programmer uses the language’s built-in reference types rather than plain pointers.Using functionality from native code libraries requires writing vapi files, defining the library interfacing. Writing these interface definitions is well-documented for C libraries, especially when based on GObject. However, C++ libraries are not supported. Vapi files are provided for a large portion of the GNOME platform, including GTK+.Vala was conceived by J?rg Billeter and was implemented by him and Raffaele Sandrini, finishing a self-hosting compiler in May 2006.

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  66. The Klerer-May System is a programming language developed in the mid-1960s, oriented to numerical scientific programming, whose most notable feature is its two-dimensional syntax based on traditional mathematical notation.For input and output, the Klerer-May system used a Friden Flexowriter modified to allow half-line motions for subscripts and superscripts. The character set included digits, upper-case letters, subsets of 14 lower-case Latin letters and 18 Greek letters, arithmetic operators (+ ? ? / |) and punctuation (. , ( )), and eight special line-drawing characters (resembling ? ? ? _ ? ? ? ?) used to construct multi-line brackets and symbols for summation, products, roots, and for multi-line division or fractions.The system was intended to be forgiving of input mistakes, and easy to learn; its reference manual was only two pages.The system was developed by Melvin Klerer and Jack May at Columbia University’s Hudson Laboratories in Dobbs Ferry, New York, for the Office of Naval Research, and ran on GE-200 series computers.

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  67. LaTeX ( LAH-tekh or LAY-tekh; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system. When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text found in WYSIWYG («what you see is what you get») word processors like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer and Apple Pages. The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references. A TeX distribution such as TeX Live or MikTeX is used to produce an output file (such as PDF or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution. Within the typesetting system, its name is stylised as LaTeX.LaTeX is widely used in academia for the communication and publication of scientific documents in many fields, including mathematics, statistics, computer science, engineering, chemistry, physics, economics, linguistics, quantitative psychology, philosophy, and political science. It also has a prominent role in the preparation and publication of books and articles that contain complex multilingual materials, such as Tamil, Sanskrit and Greek. LaTeX uses the TeX typesetting program for formatting its output, and is itself written in the TeX macro language.LaTeX can be used as a standalone document preparation system or as an intermediate format. In the latter role, for example, it is sometimes used as part of a pipeline for translating DocBook and other XML-based formats to PDF. The typesetting system offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing of tables and figures, chapter and section headings, the inclusion of graphics, page layout, indexing and bibliographies.Like TeX, LaTeX started as a writing tool for mathematicians and computer scientists, but from early in its development it has also been taken up by scholars who needed to write documents that include complex math expressions or non-Latin scripts, such as Arabic, Sanskrit and Chinese.LaTeX is intended to provide a high-level language that accesses the power of TeX in an easier way for writers. In short, TeX handles the layout side, while LaTeX handles the content side for document processing. LaTeX comprises a collection of TeX macros and a program to process LaTeX documents. Because the plain TeX formatting commands are elementary, it provides authors with ready-made commands for formatting and layout requirements such as chapter headings, footnotes, cross-references and bibliographies.LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport at SRI International. The current version is LaTeX2e (stylised as LaTeX2?). LaTeX is free software and is distributed under the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL).

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  68. LSE (French: Langage symbolique d’enseignement) is a programming language developed at Sup?lec in the late 1970s/early 1980s. It is similar to BASIC, except with French-language instead of English-language keywords. It was derived from an earlier language called LSD, also developed at Sup?lec. It is most commonly said to be an acronym for Langage Symbolique d’Enseignement (Symbolic Teaching Language), but other expansions are also known (e.g. Langage de Sup-?lec, or the more cynical Langage Sans Espoir (hopeless language)).It originally flourished due to support from the French Ministry of National Education, but declined as the ministry lost interest. It went through a number of revisions; earlier versions of LSE lacked full support for structured programming, which later version added, along with exception handling.

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  69. The A-0 system (Arithmetic Language version 0), written by Grace Murray Hopper in 1951 and 1952 for the UNIVAC I, was an early compiler related tool developed for electronic computers. The A-0 functioned more as a loader or linker than the modern notion of a compiler. A program was specified as a sequence of subroutines and arguments. The subroutines were identified by a numeric code and the arguments to the subroutines were written directly after each subroutine code. The A-0 system converted the specification into machine code that could be fed into the computer a second time to execute the said program.The A-0 system was followed by the A-1, A-2, A-3 (released as ARITH-MATIC), AT-3 (released as MATH-MATIC) and B-0 (released as FLOW-MATIC).The A-2 system was developed at the UNIVAC division of Remington Rand in 1953 and released to customers by the end of that year. Customers were provided the source code for A-2 and invited to send their improvements back to UNIVAC. Thus A-2 was an early example of free and open-source software.

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  70. FL (short for Function Level) is a functional programming language created at the IBM Almaden Research Center by John Backus, John Williams, and Edward Wimmers in the 1980s and documented in a report from 1989. FL was designed as a successor of Backus’ earlier FP language, providing specific support for what Backus termed function-level programming.FL is a dynamically typed strict functional programming language with throw and catch exception semantics much like in ML. Each function has an implicit history argument which is used for doing things like strictly functional input/output (I/O), but is also used for linking to C code. For doing optimization, there exists a type-system which is an extension of Hindley–Milner type inference.Many of the language’s innovative ideas have since been implemented in Kenneth E. Iverson’s J language.

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  71. QuakeC is an interpreted language developed in 1996 by John Carmack of id Software to program parts of the video game Quake. Using QuakeC, a programmer is able to customize Quake to great extents by adding weapons, changing game logic and physics, and programming complex scenarios. It can be used to control many aspects of the game itself, such as parts of the AI, triggers, or changes in the level. The Quake engine was the only game engine to use QuakeC. Following engines used DLL game modules for customization written in C and C++ from id Tech 4 on.

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  72. Lisp (historically LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today. Only Fortran is older, by one year. Lisp has changed since its early days, and many dialects have existed over its history. Today, the best known general-purpose Lisp dialects are Clojure, Common Lisp, and Scheme.Lisp was originally created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs, influenced by the notation of Alonzo Church’s lambda calculus. It quickly became the favored programming language for artificial intelligence (AI) research. As one of the earliest programming languages, Lisp pioneered many ideas in computer science, including tree data structures, automatic storage management, dynamic typing, conditionals, higher-order functions, recursion, the self-hosting compiler, and the read–eval–print loop.The name LISP derives from «LISt Processor». Linked lists are one of Lisp’s major data structures, and Lisp source code is made of lists. Thus, Lisp programs can manipulate source code as a data structure, giving rise to the macro systems that allow programmers to create new syntax or new domain-specific languages embedded in Lisp.The interchangeability of code and data gives Lisp its instantly recognizable syntax. All program code is written as s-expressions, or parenthesized lists. A function call or syntactic form is written as a list with the function or operator’s name first, and the arguments following; for instance, a function f that takes three arguments would be called as (f arg1 arg2 arg3).

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  73. SASL (from St Andrews Static Language, alternatively St Andrews Standard Language) is a purely functional programming language developed by David Turner at the University of St Andrews in 1972, based on the applicative subset of ISWIM. In 1976 Turner redesigned and reimplemented it as a non-strict (lazy) language. In this form it was the foundation of Turner’s later languages KRC and Miranda, but SASL appears to be untyped whereas Miranda has polymorphic types.Burroughs Corporation used SASL to write a compiler and operating system.

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  74. Turing is a Pascal-like programming language developed in 1982 by Ric Holt and James Cordy, then of University of Toronto, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Turing is a descendant of Euclid, Pascal and SP/k that features a clean syntax and precise machine-independent semantics.Turing 4.1.0 is the latest stable version of Turing. Turing 4.1.1 and Turing 4.1.2 do not allow for stand alone .EXE files to be created and versions before Turing 4.1.0 have outdated syntax and outdated functions.

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  75. ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages. It was an early compromise design soon superseded by ALGOL 60. According to John Backus»The Zurich ACM-GAMM Conference had two principal motives in proposing the IAL: (a) To provide a means of communicating numerical methods and other procedures between people, and (b) To provide a means of realizing a stated process on a variety of machines…»ALGOL 58 introduced the fundamental notion of the compound statement, but it was restricted to control flow only, and it was not tied to identifier scope in the way that Algol 60’s blocks were.

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  76. P4 is a programming language designed to allow programming of packet forwarding planes. In contrast to a general purpose language such as C or Python, P4 is a domain-specific language with a number of constructs optimized around network data forwarding. P4 is an open-source, permissively licensed language and is maintained by a non-profit organization called the P4 Language Consortium. The language was originally described in a SIGCOMM CCR paper in 2014 titled “Programming Protocol-Independent Packet Processors” – the alliterative name shortens to “P4”.

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  77. OmniMark is a fourth-generation programming language used mostly in the publishing industry. It is currently a proprietary software product of Stilo International. As of September 2018 the most recent release of OmniMark was 10.1.2, dated April 2016.

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  78. In computer programming, Franz Lisp is a discontinued Lisp programming language system written at the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, UCB) by Professor Richard Fateman and several students, based largely on Maclisp and distributed with the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) for the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX minicomputer. Piggybacking on the popularity of the BSD package, Franz Lisp was probably the most widely distributed and used Lisp system of the 1970s and 1980s.The name is a pun on composer Franz Liszt.It was written specifically to be a host for running the Macsyma computer algebra system on VAX. The project began at the end of 1978, soon after UC Berkeley took delivery of their first VAX 11/780 (named Ernie CoVax, after Ernie Kovacs, the first of many systems with pun names at UCB). Franz Lisp was available free of charge to educational sites, and was also distributed on Eunice, a Berkeley Unix emulator that ran on VAX VMS.

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  79. ChucK is a concurrent, strongly timed audio programming language for real-time synthesis, composition, and performance,which runs on Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, and iOS. It is designed to favor readability and flexibility for the programmer over other considerations such as raw performance. It natively supports deterministic concurrency and multiple, simultaneous, dynamic control rates. Another key feature is the ability to live code; adding, removing, and modifying code on the fly, while the program is running, without stopping or restarting. It has a highly precise timing/concurrency model, allowing for arbitrarily fine granularity. It offers composers and researchers a powerful and flexible programming tool for building and experimenting with complex audio synthesis programs, and real-time interactive control.ChucK was created and chiefly designed by Ge Wang as a graduate student working with Perry R. Cook. ChucK is distributed freely under the terms of the GNU General Public License on Mac OS X, Linux and Microsoft Windows. On iPhone and iPad, ChiP (ChucK for iPhone) is distributed under a limited, closed source license, and is not currently licensed to the public. However, the core team has stated that it would like to explore «ways to open ChiP by creating a beneficial environment for everyone».

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  80. Ch is a proprietary cross-platform C and C++ interpreter and scripting language environment, originally designed by Harry H. Cheng as a scripting language for beginners to learn mathematics, computing, numerical analysis (numeric methods), and programming in C/C++. Ch is now developed and marketed by SoftIntegration, Inc. A student edition is freely available. Ch Professional Edition for Raspberry Pi is free for non-commercial use.Ch can be embedded in C/C++ application programs. It has numerical computing and graphical plotting features. Ch is a combined shell and IDE. Ch shell combines the features of common shell and C language. ChIDE provides quick code navigation and symbolic debugging. It is based on embedded Ch, Scite and Scintilla.Ch is written in C and runs on Windows, Linux, macOS, FreeBSD, AIX, Solaris, QNX, and HP-UX. It supports C90 and major C99 features, but it does not support the full set of C++ features. C99 complex number, IEEE-754 floating-point arithmetic, and variable-length array features were supported in Ch before they became part of the C99 standard. An article published by Computer Reseller News (CRN) named Ch as notable among C-based virtual machines for its functionality and the availability of third-party libraries.Ch has many toolkits that extend its functions. For example, Ch Mechanism Toolkit is used for design and analysis of commonly used mechanisms such as fourbar linkage, five-bar linkage, six-bar linkage, crank-slider mechanism, and cam-follower system. Ch Control System Toolkit is used for modeling, design, and analysis of continuous-time or discrete-time linear time invariant (LTI) control systems. Both toolkits includes the source code.Ch is now used and integrated into curriculum by many high schools and universities to teach computing and programming in C/C++. Ch has been integrated into free C-STEM Studio, a platform for learning computing, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (C-STEM) with robotics. C-STEM Studio is developed by UC Davis Center for Integrated Computing and STEM Education (C-STEM). It offers the curriculum for K-12 students.Ch supports LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3, Arduino, Linkbot, Finch Robot, RoboTalk and Rasperry PI, Pi Zero, and ARM for robot programming and learning.It can also be embedded into the LabVIEW system-design platform and development environment.

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  81. OmniMark is a fourth-generation programming language used mostly in the publishing industry. It is currently a proprietary software product of Stilo International. As of September 2018 the most recent release of OmniMark was 10.1.2, dated April 2016.

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  82. The Kaleidoscope programming language is a constraint programming language embedding constraints into an imperative object-oriented language. It adds keywords always, once, and assert..during (formerly while..assert) to make statements about relational invariants. Objects have constraint constructors, which are not methods, to enforce the meanings of user-defined datatypes.There are three versions of Kaleidoscope which show an evolution from declarative to an increasingly imperative style. Differences between them are as follows.

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  83. Visual J# (pronounced «jay-sharp») is an implementation of the J# programming language that was a transitional language for programmers of Java and Visual J++ languages, so they could use their existing knowledge and applications with the .NET Framework. It was introduced in 2002 and discontinued in 2007, with support for the final release of the product continuing until October 2017.J# worked with Java bytecode as well as source so it could be used to transition applications that used third-party libraries even if their original source code was unavailable. It was developed by the Hyderabad-based Microsoft India Development Center at HITEC City in India.

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  84. Lua ( LOO-?; from Portuguese: lua [?lu.(w)?] meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications. Lua is cross-platform, since the interpreter is written in ANSI C, and has a relatively simple C API.Lua was originally designed in 1993 as a language for extending software applications to meet the increasing demand for customization at the time. It provided the basic facilities of most procedural programming languages, but more complicated or domain-specific features were not included; rather, it included mechanisms for extending the language, allowing programmers to implement such features. As Lua was intended to be a general embeddable extension language, the designers of Lua focused on improving its speed, portability, extensibility, and ease-of-use in development.

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  85. Easytrieve is a Report generator product of CA Technologies. Easytrieve Classic and Easytrieve Plus are two available versions of this programming languages primarily designed to generate reports and are used by large corporations operating in mainframe (z/OS, z/VM, z/VSE), UNIX, Linux, and Microsoft Windows environments

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  86. Visual FoxPro is a discontinued Microsoft data-centric procedural programming language that subsequently became object-oriented.It was derived from FoxPro (originally known as FoxBASE) which was developed by Fox Software beginning in 1984. Fox Technologies merged with Microsoft in 1992, after which the software acquired further features and the prefix «Visual». FoxPro 2.6 worked on Mac OS, DOS, Windows, and Unix.Visual FoxPro 3.0, the first «Visual» version, reduced platform support to only Mac and Windows, and later versions 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were Windows-only. The current version of Visual FoxPro is COM-based and Microsoft has stated that they do not intend to create a Microsoft .NET version.Version 9.0, released in December 2004 and updated in October 2007 with the SP2 patch, was the final version of the product.

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  87. Mystic BBS is a bulletin board system software program that began in 1995 and was first released to the public in December 1997 under the MS-DOS platform. It has since been ported to Microsoft Windows, OS/2, OS X, and Linux (Intel and ARM based systems such as the Raspberry Pi). Mystic was designed to be a spiritual successor to the Telegard and Renegade bulletin board systems.Some of the more notable capabilities of Mystic BBS include:Integrated Telnet, SSH, RLogin, FTP, BinkP, HTTP, NNTP, POP3, SMTP servers with IPv4 + IPv6 supportFull 5D compliant BSO mailer and tosser, including BINKP and FTP mailerBuilt in AreaFix and FileFix functionality and full fileecho supportA basic HTTP serverIntegrated QWK and QWKE networking via FTPIntegrated text and ANSI editors, message editing with on-the-fly spell checking and word suggestionsProprietary scripting language called Mystic Programming Language (MPL)Embedded PYTHON programming languageDOS CP437 and UTF8 character translationsDynamic menus including menu editor, and fully customizable promptsMultiple user-selectable themesDOOR32 support in addition to various DOS-type door formatsAutomatic random ANSI display (i.e. ansi.ans, ansi.an1, ansi.an2, etc. would display randomly)A fully featured ACS (access control system) and MCI display codesHighly integrated with ANSI graphics including full screen editor, lightbar menus, lightbar file listings and message readingAdvanced, feature-rich JAM message base system with QWK/QWKE offline mailMultiple platform distributions available including Windows, OS X, Linux and ARM Linux (Raspberry Pi, ODROID, etc)A more complete list of capabilities can be found at http://www.mysticbbs.com/features.htmlAttracted to the flexibility and potential that the scripting language provides, a number groups, such as ACiDic BBS modding, Cyberia, Demonic, DoRE, Vanguard, wOE!mODDING and Wicked formed for the sole purpose of writing BBS mods for SysOps who run Mystic.

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  88. Z++ (pronounced zee plus plus) was an object-oriented extension to the Z specification language.Z++ is an object-oriented extension to the Z specification language, allowing for the definition of classes, and the relation of classes through inheritance, association or aggregation.The primary construct of Z++ is a class. A Z++ class consists of a number of clauses which are optional.Z++ Class Structure:CLASS ClassName [OWNS List_of_attributes] [FUNCTIONS constant_definitions] [TYPE type_declaration] [ENTENDS list_of_super_classes] [OPERATIONS list_of_state_change_operations_definitions] [RETURNS list_of_query_operations_definitions] [ACTIONS all_operations_declarations] [INVARIANT predicates] [HISTORY RTL_predicates]END CLASS

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  89. dc (desk calculator) is a cross-platform reverse-polish calculator which supports arbitrary-precision arithmetic. It is one of the oldest Unix utilities, predating even the invention of the C programming language. Like other utilities of that vintage, it has a powerful set of features but terse syntax.Traditionally, the bc calculator program (with infix notation) was implemented on top of dc.This article provides some examples in an attempt to give a general flavour of the language; for a complete list of commands and syntax, one should consult the man page for one’s specific implementation.

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  90. PLANC (pronounced as «plank») is a high level computer programming language. The acronym stands for Programming LAnguage for Nd Computers.Compilers were developed by Norsk Data for several architectures, including the Motorola 68000, 88000, x86, and the Norsk Data NORD-10 minicomputer architecture and ND-500 superminicomputer.The language was designed to be platform independent. It was mainly used internally at Norsk Data for writing high level systems software such as the upper parts of the operating systems and compilers.

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  91. AMOS BASIC is a dialect of the BASIC programming language implemented on the Amiga computer. AMOS BASIC was published by Europress Software and originally written by Fran?ois Lionet with Constantin Sotiropoulos.

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  92. ProvideX is a computer language and development environment derived from Business Basic (a business oriented derivative of BASIC) in the mid-1980s.ProvideX is available on several operating systems (Unix/Linux/Windows/Mac OS X) and includes not only the programming language but also file system, presentation layer interface, and other components. The language is primarily designed for use in the development of business applications.Over the years since its inception and as the computer industry has changed, ProvideX has added functionality such as a graphical interface, client-server capabilities, access to external databases, web services, and, more recently, object-oriented programming capabilities.On October 8, 2010, PVX Plus Technologies announced that it has assumed all ongoing sales, development, and support of the ProvideX product line for Independent Software Vendors. This brings the development of the language back under control of the original creator, Mike King and is the end result of almost 2 years of negotiations between Sage, EDIAS, and PVX Plus Technologies.

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  93. C/AL (Client/server Application Language) is the programming language used within C/SIDE the Client/Server Integrated Development Environment in Microsoft Dynamics NAV (Formerly known as Navision Attain). C/AL is a Database specific programming language, and is primarly used for retrieving, inserting and modifying records in a Navision database. C/AL resembles the Pascal language on which it is based. The original C/AL compiler was written by Michael Nielsen.

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  94. Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer’s central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction causes the CPU to perform a very specific task, such as a load, a store, a jump, or an ALU operation on one or more units of data in CPU registers or memory.Machine code is a strictly numerical language which is intended to run as fast as possible, and may be regarded as the lowest-level representation of a compiled or assembled computer program or as a primitive and hardware-dependent programming language. While it is possible to write programs directly in machine code, it is tedious and error prone to manage individual bits and calculate numerical addresses and constants manually. For this reason, programs are very rarely written directly in machine code in modern contexts, but may be done for low level debugging, program patching, and assembly language disassembly.The overwhelming majority of practical programs today are written in higher-level languages or assembly language. The source code is then translated to executable machine code by utilities such as compilers, assemblers, and linkers, with the important exception of interpreted programs, which are not translated into machine code. However, the interpreter itself, which may be seen as an executor or processor, performing the instructions of the source code, typically consists of directly executable machine code (generated from assembly or high-level language source code).Machine code is by definition the lowest level of programming detail visible to the programmer, but internally many processors use microcode or optimise and transform machine code instructions into sequences of micro-ops, this is not generally considered to be a machine code per se.

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  95. Lithe is an experimental programming language created in 1982 by David Sandberg at the University of Washington which allows the programmer to freely choose their own syntax. Lithe combines the ideas of syntax-directed translation and classes in a novel manner that results in a remarkably simple yet powerful language.

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  96. PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language. Initially a Windows component only, known as Windows PowerShell, it was made open-source and cross-platform on 18 August 2016 with the introduction of PowerShell Core. The former is built on .NET Framework while the latter on .NET Core.In PowerShell, administrative tasks are generally performed by cmdlets (pronounced command-lets), which are specialized .NET classes implementing a particular operation. These work by accessing data in different data stores, like the file system or registry, which are made available to PowerShell via providers. Third-party developers can develop their own cmdlets and add them to PowerShell. Sets of cmdlets may be combined into scripts.PowerShell provides full access to COM and WMI, enabling administrators to perform administrative tasks on both local and remote Windows systems as well as WS-Management and CIM enabling management of remote Linux systems and network devices. PowerShell also provides a hosting API with which the PowerShell runtime can be embedded inside other applications. These applications can then use PowerShell functionality to implement certain operations, including those exposed via the graphical interface. This capability has been used by Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 to expose its management functionality as PowerShell cmdlets and providers and implement the graphical management tools as PowerShell hosts which invoke the necessary cmdlets. Other Microsoft applications including Microsoft SQL Server 2008 also expose their management interface via PowerShell cmdlets.PowerShell includes its own extensive, console-based help (similar to man pages in Unix shells) accessible via the Get-Help cmdlet. Local help contents can be retrieved from the Internet via Update-Help cmdlet. Alternatively, help from the web can be acquired on a case-by-case basis via the -online switch to Get-Help.

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  97. A Mathematical Programming Language (AMPL) is an algebraic modeling language to describe and solve high-complexity problems for large-scale mathematical computing (i.e., large-scale optimization and scheduling-type problems).It was developed by Robert Fourer, David Gay, and Brian Kernighan at Bell Laboratories.AMPL supports dozens of solvers, both open source and commercial software, including CBC, CPLEX, FortMP, Gurobi, MINOS, IPOPT, SNOPT, KNITRO, and LGO. Problems are passed to solvers as nl files.AMPL is used by more than 100 corporate clients, and by government agencies and academic institutions.One advantage of AMPL is the similarity of its syntax to the mathematical notation of optimization problems. This allows for a very concise and readable definition of problems in the domain of optimization. Many modern solvers available on the NEOS Server (formerly hosted at the Argonne National Laboratory, currently hosted at the University of Wisconsin, Madison) accept AMPL input. According to the NEOS statistics AMPL is the most popular format for representing mathematical programming problems.

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  98. FLOW-MATIC, originally known as B-0 (Business Language version 0), was the first English-like data processing language. It was developed for the UNIVAC I at Remington Rand under Grace Hopper during the period from 1955 until 1959. It had a strong influence on the development of COBOL.

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  99. COWSEL (COntrolled Working SpacE Language) is a programming language designed between 1964 and 1966 by Robin Popplestone. It was based on an RPN form of Lisp combined with some ideas from CPL.COWSEL was initially implemented on a Ferranti Pegasus computer at the University of Leeds and on a Stantec Zebra at the Bradford Institute of Technology; later, Rod Burstall implemented it on an Elliot 4120 at the University of Edinburgh.COWSEL was renamed POP-1 during the summer of 1966 and development continued under that name from then on.

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  100. SP/k is a programming language developed circa 1974 by R.C. Holt, D.B. Wortman, D.T. Barnard and J.R. Cordy as a subset of the PL/I programming language designed for teaching programming. It was used for about a decade at over 40 universities, schools, and research laboratories in Canada and the United States.SP/k was one of the first languages specifically designed to encourage structured programming. The features of SP/k were chosen to encourage structured problem solving by computers, to make the language easy to learn and use, to eliminate confusing and redundant constructs, and to make the language easy to compile.The resulting language was suitable for introducing programming concepts used in various applications, including business data processing, scientific calculations and non-numeric computation. SP/k is actually a sequence of language subsets called SP/1, SP/2, … SP/8. Each subset introduces new programming language constructs while retaining all the constructs of preceding subsets, forming a stepwise system for teaching computer programming. Each subset is precisely defined and self-contained, and can be learned or implemented without the following subsets. This allows for various levels of programming education. The design and philosophy of SP/k was a strong influence on the Turing programming language.

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  101. High Level Assembly (HLA) is a high-level assembly language developed by Randall Hyde. It allows the use of higher-level language constructs to aid both beginners and advanced assembly developers. It fully supports advanced data types and object-oriented programming. It uses a syntax loosely based on several high-level programming languages (HLLs), such as Pascal, Ada, Modula-2, and C++, to allow creating readable assembly language programs, and to allow HLL programmers to learn HLA as fast as possible.

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  102. Winbatch is a Microsoft Windows scripting language originally developed by Wilson WindowWare and currently supported, maintained and enhanced by Island Lake Consulting LLC. Its environment includes an interpreter and a code editor along with a dialog designer and optional compiler to create self-contained executables.Its language structure and syntax is a cross between DOS batch command, Basic, Fortran, and C. It has been developed over the years with functions added and support for things like .Net, ActiveX controls, COM (OLE), Unicode, UAC and code signing.

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  103. Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith. The principal concepts were:The module as a compilation unit for separate compilationThe coroutine as the basic building block for concurrent processesTypes and procedures that allow access to machine-specific data.Wirth viewed Modula-2 as a successor to his earlier programming languages Pascal and Modula. The language design was also influenced by the Mesa language and the new programming possibilities of the early personal computer Xerox Alto, both from Xerox, that Wirth saw during his 1976 sabbatical year at Xerox PARC. The computer magazine BYTE devoted the August 1984 issue to the language and its surrounding environment.

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  104. Processing is an open-source graphical library and integrated development environment (IDE) / playground built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching non-programmers the fundamentals of computer programming in a visual context.Processing uses the Java language, with additional simplifications such as additional classes and aliased mathematical functions and operations. As well as this, it also has a graphical user interface for simplifying the compilation and execution stage.The Processing language and IDE were the precursor to numerous other projects, notably Arduino, Wiring and P5.js.

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  105. WebAssembly (often shortened to Wasm) is a standard that defines a binary format and a corresponding assembly-like text format for executables used by web pages.The purpose of Wasm is to enable the JavaScript engine of a web browser to execute page scripts nearly as fast as native machine code. But this is not a full replacement for JavaScript; rather, Wasm is only intended for performance-critical portions of page scripts. Wasm code runs in the same sandbox as regular script code, but only regular scripts have direct access to the DOM tree.The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) maintains the standard with contributions from Mozilla, Microsoft, Google, and Apple.

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  106. Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, Linux and z/OS. Swift is designed to work with Apple’s Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks and the large body of existing Objective-C code written for Apple products. It is built with the open source LLVM compiler framework and has been included in Xcode since version 6, released in 2014. On Apple platforms, it uses the Objective-C runtime library which allows C, Objective-C, C++ and Swift code to run within one program.Apple intended Swift to support many core concepts associated with Objective-C, notably dynamic dispatch, widespread late binding, extensible programming and similar features, but in a «safer» way, making it easier to catch software bugs; Swift has features addressing some common programming errors like null pointer dereferencing and provides syntactic sugar to help avoid the pyramid of doom. Swift supports the concept of protocol extensibility, an extensibility system that can be applied to types, structs and classes, which Apple promotes as a real change in programming paradigms they term «protocol-oriented programming» (similar to traits).Swift was introduced at Apple’s 2014 Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC). It underwent an upgrade to version 1.2 during 2014 and a more major upgrade to Swift 2 at WWDC 2015. Initially a proprietary language, version 2.2 was made open-source software under the Apache License 2.0 on December 3, 2015, for Apple’s platforms and Linux.Through version 3.0 the syntax of Swift went through significant evolution, with the core team making source stability a focus in later versions. In the first quarter of 2018 Swift surpassed Objective-C in measured popularity.Swift 4.0, released in 2017, introduced several changes to some built-in classes and structures. Code written with previous versions of Swift can be updated using the migration functionality built into Xcode.

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  107. FLOW-MATIC, originally known as B-0 (Business Language version 0), was the first English-like data processing language. It was developed for the UNIVAC I at Remington Rand under Grace Hopper during the period from 1955 until 1959. It had a strong influence on the development of COBOL.

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  108. LPC (short for Lars Pensj? C) is an object-oriented programming language derived from C and developed originally by Lars Pensj? to facilitate MUD building on LPMuds. Though designed for game development, its flexibility has led to it being used for a variety of purposes, and to its evolution into the language Pike.LPC syntax places it in the family of C-like languages, with C and C++ its strongest influences.

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  109. DIGITAL Command Language (DCL) is the standard command languageadopted by most of the operating systems (OSs) that were sold by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (which was acquired by Compaq, which was in turn acquired by Hewlett-Packard). DCL had its roots in the IAS, TOPS-20, and RT-11 OSs and was implemented as a standard across most of Digital’s OSs, notably RSX-11, but took its most powerful form in the OpenVMS OS.Written when the programming language Fortran was in heavy use, DCL is a scripting language supporting several datatypes, including strings, integers, bit arrays, arrays and booleans, but not floating point numbers. Access to OpenVMS system services (kernel API) is through lexical functions, which perform the same as their compiled language counterparts and allow scripts to get information on system state. DCL includes IF-THEN-ELSE, access to all the Record Management Services (RMS) file types including stream, indexed, and sequential, but unfortunately lacks a DO-WHILE or other looping construct, requiring users to make do with IF and GOTO-label statements instead.DCL is available for other operating systems as well, including VCL and VX/DCL for Unix,VCL for MS-DOS, OS/2 and Windows,PC-DCL and Open DCL for Windows/Linuxand Accelr8 DCL Lite for Windows.DCL is the basis of the XLNT language, implemented on Windows by an interpreter-IDE-WSH engine combination with CGI capabilities distributed by Advanced System Concepts Inc. from 1997.

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  110. xBase is the generic term for all programming languages that derive from the original dBASE (Ashton-Tate) programming language and database formats. These are sometimes informally known as dBASE «clones». While there was a non-commercial predecessor to the Ashton-Tate product (Vulcan written by Wayne Ratliff), most clones are based on Ashton-Tate’s 1986 dBASE III+ release — scripts written in the dBASE III+ dialect are most likely to run on all the clones.

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  111. BeanShell is a Java-like scripting language, invented by Patrick Niemeyer. It runs in the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) and uses a variation of the Java syntax, in addition to scripting commands and syntax.

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  112. Visual Objects is an object-oriented computer programming language that is used to create computer programs that operate primarily under Windows. Although it can be used as a general-purpose programming tool, it is almost exclusively used to create database programs.The original Visual Objects project (code-named Aspen) was started as part of Nantucket’s attempts to bring the Clipper language to Windows, and move from the procedural to the object-oriented style. It also converted Clipper from a p-code system to being a true native compiler and introduced more elements of the C language (such as typed variables), while including Windows extensions (such as COM, ODBC, and later ADO). With its symbol datatype, it offers the ability to form name-based linkages, which may be used to connect menu events to object methods or form direct linkages between server columns and controls.The Windows version was finally brought to market by Computer Associates. Unfortunately it was released before it was market-ready and in almost head-to-head competition with the first release of Borland’s Delphi product. The language is still in use however the last release by GrafX Software was in 2012 of version 2.8 sp4 (version number 2838). GrafX announced that after this no new versions would be released. The next incarnation of the Visual Objects language is Vulcan.NET, written by GrafX from scratch to be both Visual Objects compatible and be a true CLS compliant .NET language, taking full advantage of the .NET framework.

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  113. TempleOS (formerly J Operating System, SparrowOS and LoseThos) is a biblical-themed lightweight operating system designed to be the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible. It was created by American programmer Terry A. Davis, who developed it alone over the course of a decade after a series of episodes that he later described as a revelation from God.The system was characterized as a modern x86-64 Commodore 64, using an interface similar to a mixture of DOS and Turbo C. Davis proclaimed that the system’s features, such as its 640×480 resolution, 16-color display and single audio voice, were explicitly instructed to him by God. It was programmed with an original variation of C (named HolyC) in place of BASIC, and included an original flight simulator, compiler and kernel.TempleOS was released in 2013 and last updated in 2017. It was received with largely favorable reviews in tech communities and Davis amassed a small online following. One fan described him as a «programming legend», while another, a computer engineer, compared the development of TempleOS to a one-man built skyscraper. Davis died on August 11, 2018.

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  114. Visual J++ (pronounced «Jay Plus Plus») is Microsoft’s discontinued implementation of Java. Syntax, keywords, and grammatical conventions were the same as Java’s. Microsoft discontinued support of J++ in January 2004, replacing it to a certain extent with J# and C#.

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  115. The Maya Embedded Language (MEL) is a scripting language used to simplify tasks in Autodesk’s 3D Graphics Software Maya. Most tasks that can be achieved through Maya’s GUI can be achieved with MEL, as well as certain tasks that are not available from the GUI. MEL offers a method of speeding up complicated or repetitive tasks, as well as allowing users to redistribute a specific set of commands to others that may find it useful.

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  116. PARI/GP is a computer algebra system with the main aim of facilitating number theory computations. Versions 2.1.0 and higher are distributed under the GNU General Public License. It runs on most common operating systems.

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  117. Orwell is a small, lazy-evaluation functional programming language implemented principally by Martin Raskovsky and first released in 1984 by Philip Wadler during his time as a Research Fellow in the Programming Research Group, part of the Oxford University Computing Laboratory. Developed as a free alternative to Miranda, it was a forerunner of Haskell and was one of the first programming languages to support list comprehensions and pattern matching.The name is a tribute to George Orwell’s novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, the year in which the programming language was released. In the late 1980s and the 1990s, most of the computing practical assignments for undergraduates studying for a degree in Mathematics and Computation at Oxford University were required to be completed using the language.

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  118. Z++ (pronounced zee plus plus) was an object-oriented extension to the Z specification language.Z++ is an object-oriented extension to the Z specification language, allowing for the definition of classes, and the relation of classes through inheritance, association or aggregation.The primary construct of Z++ is a class. A Z++ class consists of a number of clauses which are optional.Z++ Class Structure:CLASS ClassName [OWNS List_of_attributes] [FUNCTIONS constant_definitions] [TYPE type_declaration] [ENTENDS list_of_super_classes] [OPERATIONS list_of_state_change_operations_definitions] [RETURNS list_of_query_operations_definitions] [ACTIONS all_operations_declarations] [INVARIANT predicates] [HISTORY RTL_predicates]END CLASS

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  119. Protel stands for «Procedure Oriented Type Enforcing Language». It is a programming language created by Nortel Networks and used on telecommunications switching systems such as the DMS-100. Protel-2 is the object-oriented version of Protel.PROTEL languages were designed to meet the needs of digital telephony and is the basis of the DMS-100 line of switching systems PROTEL is a strongly typed, block-structured language which is based heavily on PASCAL and ALGOL 68 with left-to-right style of variable assignment, variable-sized arrays, and extensible structures. The designers of PROTEL significantly extended PASCAL of the day by adding external compilation and extending the data structures available in the language.

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  120. chomski virtual machine (named after the noted linguist Noam Chomsky) and pp (the pattern parser) refer to both a command line computer language and utility (interpreter for that language) which can be used to parse and transform text patterns. The utility reads input files character by character (sequentially), applying the operation which has been specified via the command line or a pp script, and then outputs the line. It was developed from 2006 as a Unix and Windows utility, and is available today for Windows and Linux systems. Pp has derived a number of ideas and syntax elements from Sed, a command line text stream editor.

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  121. The PL/M programming language (an acronym of Programming Language for Microcomputers)is a high-level language conceived and developed by Gary Kildall in 1973 for Hank Smith at Intel for its microprocessors.The language incorporated ideas from PL/I, ALGOL and XPL, and had an integrated macro processor. Unlike other contemporary languages such as Pascal, C or BASIC, PL/M had no standard input or output routines. It included features targeted at the low-level hardware specific to the target microprocessors, and as such, it could support direct access to any location in memory, I/O ports and the processor interrupt flags in a very efficient manner. PL/M was the first higher level programming language for microprocessor-based computers and was the original implementation language for the CP/M operating system. Many Intel and Zilog Z80 based embedded systems were programmed in PL/M during the 1970s and 1980s. For instance, the firmware of the Service Processor component of CISC AS/400 was written in PL/M.The original PL/M compiler targeted the Intel 8008. An updated version generated code for the 8080 processor, which would also run on the newer Intel 8085 as well as on the Zilog Z80 family (as it is backward-compatible with the 8080). Later followed compilers for the Intel 8048 and Intel 8051-microcontroller family as well as for the 8086 (8088), 80186 (80188) and subsequent 8086-based processors, including the advanced 80286 and the 32-bit 80386. There were also PL/M compilers developed for later microcontrollers, such as the Intel 8061 and 8096 / MCS-96 architecture family. While some PL/M compilers were «native», meaning that they ran on systems using that same microprocessor, e.g. for the Intel ISIS operating system, there were also «cross compilers», for instance PLMX, which ran on other operating environments such as CP/M, Microsoft’s DOS, and Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX/VMS.PL/M is no longer supported by Intel, but aftermarket tools like PL/M-to-C translators exist (for examples, see External links, below).

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  122. SystemVerilog, standardized as IEEE 1800, is a hardware description and hardware verification language used to model, design, simulate, test and implement electronic systems. SystemVerilog is based on Verilog and some extensions, and since 2008 Verilog is now part of the same IEEE standard. It is commonly used in the semiconductor and electronic design industry as an evolution of Verilog.

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  123. SenseTalk is an English-like scripting language derived from the HyperTalk language used in HyperCard. SenseTalk was originally developed as the scripting language within the HyperSense multimedia authoring application on the NeXTStep and OpenStep platforms. SenseTalk resurfaced in 2002 as the scripting language in eggPlant, the first commercial Mac OS X and cross-platform GUI testing application.

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  124. Macsyma (; «Project MAC’s SYmbolic MAnipulator») is one of the oldest general-purpose computer algebra systems still in wide use. It was originally developed from 1968 to 1982 at MIT’s Project MAC.In 1982, Macsyma was licensed to Symbolics and became a commercial product. In 1992, Symbolics Macsyma was spun off to Macsyma, Inc., which continued to develop Macsyma until 1999. That version is still available for Microsoft’s Windows XP operating system.The 1982 version of MIT Macsyma remained available to academics and US government agencies, and it is distributed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). That version, DOE Macsyma, was maintained by Bill Schelter. Under the name of Maxima, it was released under the GPL in 1999, and remains under active maintenance.

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  125. CPL (Combined Programming Language) is a multi-paradigm programming language, that was developed in the early 1960s. It is an early ancestor of the C language via the BCPL and B languages.

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  126. Standard ML (SML; «Standard Meta Language») is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference. It is popular among compiler writers and programming language researchers, as well as in the development of theorem provers.SML is a modern dialect of ML, the programming language used in the Logic for Computable Functions (LCF) theorem-proving project. It is distinctive among widely used languages in that it has a formal specification, given as typing rules and operational semantics in The Definition of Standard ML (1990, revised and simplified as The Definition of Standard ML (Revised) in 1997).

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  127. bc, for basic calculator (often referred to as bench calculator), is «an arbitrary-precision calculator language» with syntax similar to the C programming language. bc is typically used as either a mathematical scripting language or as an interactive mathematical shell.

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  128. TMG (TransMoGrifier) is a compiler-compiler created by Robert M. McClure and presented in 1968, and implemented by Douglas McIlroy. TMG ran on systems like OS360 and early Unix. It was used to build EPL, an early version of PL/I. Ken Thompson used TMG in 1970 on PDP-7 as a tool to offer Fortran, but ended up creating the B programming language which was much influenced by BCPL.

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  129. Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.Though Perl is not officially an acronym, there are various backronyms in use, including «Practical Extraction and Reporting Language». Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions. Perl 6, which began as a redesign of Perl 5 in 2000, eventually evolved into a separate language. Both languages continue to be developed independently by different development teams and liberally borrow ideas from one another.The Perl languages borrow features from other programming languages including C, shell script (sh), AWK, and sed; Wall also alludes to Basic and Lisp in the introduction to Learning Perl (Schwartz & Christiansen) and so on. They provide text processing facilities without the arbitrary data-length limits of many contemporary Unix commandline tools, facilitating manipulation of text files. Perl 5 gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language, in part due to its then unsurpassed regular expression and string parsing abilities.In addition to CGI, Perl 5 is used for system administration, network programming, finance, bioinformatics, and other applications, such as for GUIs. It has been nicknamed «the Swiss Army chainsaw of scripting languages» because of its flexibility and power, and also its ugliness. In 1998, it was also referred to as the «duct tape that holds the Internet together,» in reference to both its ubiquitous use as a glue language and its perceived inelegance.

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  130. Toi is an imperative, type-sensitive language that provides the basic functionality of a programming language. The language was designed and developed from the ground-up by Paul Longtine. Written in C, Toi was created with the intent to be an educational experience and serves as a learning tool (or toy, hence the name) for those looking to familiarize themselves with the inner-workings of a programming language.

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  131. Tensilica Instruction Extension refers to the proprietary language that is used to customize Tensilica’s Xtensa processor core architecture.By using TIE, the user can customize the Xtensa architecture by adding custom instructions and register files, instantiating TIE Ports and Queues for multiprocessor communication, and adding pre-configured extensions (such as Tensilica’s DSP). Software applications can greatly benefit from properly targeted user-defined instructions, while TIE ports and TIE queues facilitate multiprocessor communication by adding separate input and output interfaces to the processor core. Using the TIE language and Xtensa Xplorer toolkit, the generation and verification of the instructions used to extend the processor ISA are automated. Such automation helps to reduce the hardware verification time that typically consumes a large percentage of the project duration of a typical hardware developed for the same functionality.

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  132. Fantom is a general purpose object-oriented programming language created by Brian and Andy Frank that runs on the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), JavaScript, and the .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR) (.NET support is considered «prototype» status). Its primary design goal is to provide a standard library API that abstracts away the question of whether the code will ultimately run on the JRE or CLR. Like C# and Java, Fantom uses a curly brace syntax. The language supports functional programming through closures and concurrency through the Actor model. Fantom takes a «middle of the road» approach to its type system, blending together aspects of both static and dynamic typing.

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  133. In computing, CHILL (an acronym for CCITT High Level Language) is a procedural programming language designed for use in telecommunication switches (the hardware used inside telephone exchanges). The language is still used for legacy systems in some telecommunication companies and for signal box programming.The CHILL language is similar in size and complexity to the original Ada language. The first specification of the CHILL language was published in 1980, a few years before Ada.ITU provides a standard CHILL compiler.A free CHILL compiler was bundled with GCC up to version 2.95, however, was removed from later versions. An object-oriented version, called Object CHILL, was developed also.ITU is responsible for the CHILL standard, known as ITU-T Rec. Z.200. The equivalent ISO standard is ISO/IEC 9496:2003. (The text of the two documents is the same). In late 1999 CCITT stopped maintaining the CHILL standard.CHILL was used in systems of Alcatel System 12 and Siemens EWSD, for example.

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  134. PL/SQL (Procedural Language for SQL) is Oracle Corporation’s procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 6 — stored PL/SQL procedures/functions/packages/triggers since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7). Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database.PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces.

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  135. Snap! is a free, blocks- and browser-based educational graphical programming language that allows students to create interactive animations, games, stories, and more, while learning about mathematical and computational ideas. Snap! was inspired by Scratch, but also targets both novice and more advanced students by including and expanding Scratch’s features.Since version 4.0, it is entirely browser-based, with no software that needs to be installed on the local device, much like Scratch.

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  136. Unicon is a programming language designed by American computer scientist Clint Jeffery with collaborators including Shamim Mohamed, Jafar Al Gharaibeh, Robert Parlett and others. Unicon descended from Icon and a preprocessor for Icon called IDOL. Compared with Icon, Unicon offers better access to the operating system as well as support for object-oriented programming. Unicon began life as a merger of three popular Icon extensions: an OO preprocessor named Idol, a POSIX filesystem and networking interface, and an ODBC facility. The name is shorthand for «Unified Extended Dialect of Icon.»

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  137. See also Pico (disambiguation).Pico is a programming language developed at the Software Languages Lab at Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The language was created to introduce the essentials of programming to non-computer science students.Pico can be seen as an effort to generate a palatable and enjoyable language for people who do not want to study hard for the elegance and power of a language. They have done it by adapting Scheme’s semantics.While designing Pico, the Software Languages Lab was inspired by the Abelson and Sussman’s book «Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs». Furthermore, they were influenced by the teaching of programming at high school or academic level.Pico should be interpreted as ‘small’, the idea was to create a small language for educational purposes.

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  138. The Mouse programming language is a small computer programming language developed by Dr. Peter Grogono in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was developed as an extension of an earlier language called MUSYS, which was used to control digital and analog devices in an electronic music studio.Mouse was originally intended as a small, efficient language for microcomputers with limited memory. It is an interpreted, stack-based language and uses Reverse Polish notation. To make an interpreter as easy as possible to implement, Mouse is designed so that a program is processed as a stream of characters, interpreted one character at a time.The elements of the Mouse language consist of a set of (mostly) one-character symbols, each of which performs a specific function (see table below). Since variable names are limited to one character, there are only 26 possible variables in Mouse (named A-Z). Integers and characters are the only available data types.Despite these limits, Mouse includes a number of relatively advanced features, including:Conditional branchingLoopsPointersMacros (subroutines (which may be recursive))ArraysCode tracingThe design of the Mouse language makes it ideal for teaching the design of a simple interpreter. Much of the book describing Mouse is devoted to describing the implementation of two interpreters, one in Z80 assembly language, the other in Pascal.

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  139. In computing, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) ( «jay-son», ) is an open-standard file format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs and array data types (or any other serializable value). It is a very common data format used for asynchronous browser–server communication, including as a replacement for XML in some AJAX-style systems.JSON is a language-independent data format. It was derived from JavaScript, but as of 2017 many programming languages include code to generate and parse JSON-format data. The official Internet media type for JSON is application/json. JSON filenames use the extension .json.Douglas Crockford originally specified the JSON format in the early 2000s; two competing standards, RFC 8259 and ECMA-404, defined it in 2017. The ECMA standard describes only the allowed syntax, whereas the RFC covers some security and interoperability considerations.A restricted profile of JSON, known as I-JSON (short for «Internet JSON»), seeks to overcome some of the interoperability problems with JSON. It is defined in RFC 7493.

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  140. Mortran (More Fortran) is an extension of the Fortran programming language used for scientific computation. It introduces syntax changes, including the use of semicolons to end statements, in order to improve readability and flexibility. Mortran code is macro-processed into Fortran code for compilation.Note that Mortran, like many preprocessors, does not make a complete analysis of the Fortran source and, like many preprocessors, may not always make its assumptions/requirements explicit. Consider, for example, Mortran multiple assignment. From the Mortran User Guide:produces the following FORTRAN statements:In this example, the produced Fortran implements the multiple assignment correctly only if X is not aliased to I or to A(I,K), assuming the multiple assignment semantics are left to right.

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  141. Singularity is an experimental operating system (OS) which was built by Microsoft Research between 2003 and 2010. It was designed as a high dependability OS in which the kernel, device drivers, and application software were all written in managed code. Internal security uses type safety instead of hardware memory protection.

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  142. NEWP (or the New Executive Programming Language) is a high-level programming language used on the Unisys MCP systems. The language is used to write the operating system and other system utilities, although it can also be used to write user software as well. Several constructs separate it from extended ALGOL on which it is based. Language operators such as MEMORY which allows direct memory access are strictly used by programs running as the MCP.

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  143. SiMPLE (a recursive acronym for SiMPLE Modular Programming Language & Environment) is a programming development system that was created to provide easy programming capabilities for everybody, especially non-professionals.The website of SimpleCodeWorks is now unaccessable (dead) and the only way to download the program is off archive.org. The Forums are still alive.

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  144. GameMonkey Script is a small, cross-platform scripting language designed for embedding into games. GameMonkey bears many similarities to Lua, except the syntax is more similar to that of C.

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  145. Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. Syntactically, it is a fairly faithful superset of ALGOL 60, also influenced by the design of Simscript.Simula 67 introduced objects, classes, inheritance and subclasses, virtual procedures, coroutines, and discrete event simulation, and features garbage collection. Also other forms of subtyping (besides inheriting subclasses) were introduced in Simula derivatives.Simula is considered the first object-oriented programming language. As its name suggests, Simula was designed for doing simulations, and the needs of that domain provided the framework for many of the features of object-oriented languages today.Simula has been used in a wide range of applications such as simulating VLSI designs, process modeling, protocols, algorithms, and other applications such as typesetting, computer graphics, and education. The influence of Simula is often understated, and Simula-type objects are reimplemented in C++, Object Pascal, Java, C# and several other languages. Computer scientists such as Bjarne Stroustrup, creator of C++, and James Gosling, creator of Java, have acknowledged Simula as a major influence.

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  146. PL-11 is a high-level machine-oriented programming language for the PDP-11, developed by R.D. Russell of CERN in 1971. Written in Fortran IV, it is similar to PL360 and is cross-compiled on other machines.PL-11 was originally developed as part of the Omega project, a particle physics facility operational at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) during the 1970s. The first version was written for the CII 10070, a clone of the XDS Sigma 7 built in France. Towards the end of the 1970s it was ported to the IBM 370/168, then part of CERN’s computer centre.A report describing the language is available from CERN.

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  147. Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) is a system-design platform and development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments.The graphical language is named «G»; not to be confused with G-code. Originally released for the Apple Macintosh in 1986, LabVIEW is commonly used for data acquisition, instrument control, and industrial automation on a variety of operating systems (OSs), including Microsoft Windows, various versions of Unix, Linux, and macOS.The latest versions of LabVIEW are LabVIEW 2018 and LabVIEW NXG 3.0, released in November 2018.

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  148. FOCAL is an interpreted programming language resembling JOSS. The name is an acronym for Formulating On-Line Calculations in Algebraic Language.Largely the creation of Richard Merrill, FOCAL was initially written for and had its largest impact on the Digital Equipment Corporation’s (DEC’s) PDP-8 computers. Merrill wrote the original (1968) and classic FOCAL-69 interpreters for the PDP-8. Digital itself described FOCAL as «a JOSS-like language.»Like early versions of BASIC, FOCAL was a complete programming environment in itself, requiring no operating system. As in MUMPS, most commands could be, and in practice were, abbreviated to a single letter of the alphabet. Creative choices of words were used to make each command uniquely defined by its leading character. Digital made available several European-language versions in which the command words were translated into the target language.

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  149. Lasso is an application server and server management interface used to develop internet applications and is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. Originally a web datasource connection tool, for Filemaker and later included in Apple Computer’s FileMaker 4.0 and Claris Homepage as CDML, it has since evolved into a complex language used to develop and serve large-scale internet applications and web pages.Lasso includes a simple template system allowing code to control generation of HTML and other content types. Lasso is object-oriented and every value is an object. It also supports procedural programming through unbound methods. The language uses traits and multiple dispatch extensively.Lasso has a dynamic type system, where objects can be loaded and augmented at runtime, automatic memory management, a comprehensive standard library, and three compiling methodologies: dynamic (comparable to PHP-Python), just-in-time compilation (comparable to Java or .NET Framework), and pre-compiled (comparable to C). Lasso also supports Query Expressions, allowing elements within arrays and other types of sequences to be iterated, filtered, and manipulated using a natural language syntax similar to SQL.Lasso includes full Unicode character support in the standard string object, allowing it to serve and support multi-byte characters such as Japanese and Swedish, and supports transparent UTF-8 conversion when writing string data to the network or file system.Lasso is often used as a scripting language, and also used in a wide range of non-scripting contexts. Lasso code can be packaged into standalone executable programs called «LassoApps», in which folder structures are compiled into single files.The Lasso Server application server runs as a system service and receives requests from the web server through FastCGI. It then hands the request off to the appropriate Lasso Instance, which formulates the response. Multiple individual instances are supported, allowing one server to handle multiple sites, each as separate processes. The server uses a high performance IO-based green threading system designed for multi-core systems.Lasso can be compared to the server-side scripting languages PHP and Python, ColdFusion, Ruby, etc.Free for development, Lasso allows partial access to its source code, allowing developers to add or change major components of the language (for example, Ke Carlton’s DS implementation of the Lasso Inline). Licensing comes in both SAS and stand-alone versions.

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  150. LIL, the Little Implementation Language, was a system programming language during the early days of Unix history on PDP-11 machines. It was written by P. J. Plauger of Bell Labs.LIL attempted to fill the gap between assemblers and machine-independent system implementation languages (such as the C programming language), by basically adding structured programming to the PDP-11 assembly language. LIL resembled PL360 with C-like flow control syntax.The LIL compiler «lc» was part of Fifth Edition Unix (1974), but was dropped by Sixth Edition Unix (1975). Plauger left Bell Labs in the same year.Plauger explains why LIL was abandoned in Bell Labs in favor of C: [1]… LIL is, however, a failure. Its stiffest competition at Bell Labs is the language C, which is higher level, and machine independent. Every time it looked like C was too expensive to use for a particular project, LIL was considered. But almost every time, it proved easier (and more rewarding) to improve C, or its runtime support, or the hardware, than to invest time in yet another language. … A machine independent language is always superior — even for writing machine dependent code (it’s easier to find trained programmers) — so long as the overhead can be endured. It is clear now that writing straightforward code and then measuring it is the formula for the best end product. At worst there will be 5-15 per cent overhead, which is seldom critical. Once system writers become mature enough to recognize this basic truth, they gravitate naturally toward machine independent SILs. … it looks like the little implementation language is an idea whose time as come — and gone.

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  151. COWSEL (COntrolled Working SpacE Language) is a programming language designed between 1964 and 1966 by Robin Popplestone. It was based on an RPN form of Lisp combined with some ideas from CPL.COWSEL was initially implemented on a Ferranti Pegasus computer at the University of Leeds and on a Stantec Zebra at the Bradford Institute of Technology; later, Rod Burstall implemented it on an Elliot 4120 at the University of Edinburgh.COWSEL was renamed POP-1 during the summer of 1966 and development continued under that name from then on.

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  152. The programming language T is a dialect of the language Scheme developed in the early 1980s by Jonathan A. Rees, Kent M. Pitman, and Norman I. Adams of Yale University as an experiment in language design and implementation.

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  153. Opa is an open-source programming language for developing scalable web applications.It can be used for both client-side and server-side scripting, where complete programs are written in Opa and subsequently compiled to Node.js on the server and JavaScript on the client, with the compiler automating all communication between the two. Opa implements strong, static typing, which can be helpful in protecting against security issues such as SQL injections and cross-site scripting attacks.The language was first officially presented at the OWASP conference in 2010, and the source code was released onGitHubin June 2011, under a GNU Affero General Public License. Later, the license changed to the MIT license for the framework part (library) and AGPL for the compiler so that applications written in Opa can be released under any license, proprietary or open source.

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  154. CorVision is a fourth generation programming tool (4GL) currently owned by Attunity, Inc. CorVision was developed by Cortex Corporation for the VAX/VMS ISAM environment. Although Cortex beta tested CorVision-10 which was generated for PCs but CorVision itself stayed anchored on VMS. CorVision-10 proved more difficult than hoped, and was never released.

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  155. Parallel Specification and Implementation Language (ParaSail) is an object-oriented parallel programming language. Its design and ongoing implementation is described in a blog and on its official website.ParaSail uses a pointer-free programming model, where objects can grow and shrink, and value semantics are used for assignment. It has no global garbage collected heap. Instead, region-based memory management is used throughout. Types can be recursive, so long as the recursive components are declared optional. There are no global variables, no parameter aliasing, and all subexpressions of an expression can be evaluated in parallel. Assertions, preconditions, postconditions, class invariants, etc., are part of the standard syntax, using a Hoare-like notation. Any possible race conditions are detected at compile time. Initial design of ParaSail began in September 2009, by S. Tucker Taft.Both an interpreter using the ParaSail virtual machine, and an LLVM-based ParaSail compiler are available. Work stealing is used for scheduling ParaSail’s light-weight threads. The latest version can be downloaded from the ParaSail website.

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  156. Plus is a «Pascal-like» system implementation language from the University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada, based on the SUE system language developed at the University of Toronto, c. 1971.There is another programming language named PLUS, developed at Sperry Univac in Roseville, Minnesota, but the Univac PLUS is not the subject of this article.

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  157. Yorick is an interpreted programming language designed for numerics, graph plotting, and steering large scientific simulation codes. It is quite fast due to array syntax, and extensible via C or Fortran routines. It was created in 1996 by David H. Munro of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

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  158. Emerald is a distributed, object-oriented programming language developed in the 1980s by Andrew P. Black, Norman C. Hutchinson, Eric B. Jul, and Henry M. Levy, in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Washington.A simple Emerald program can create an object and move it around the system:const Kilroy ? object Kilroy process const origin ? locate self const up ? origin.getActiveNodes for e in up const there ? e.getTheNode move self to there end for move self to origin end processend KilroyEmerald was designed to support high performance distribution, location, and high performance of objects, to simplify distributed programming, to exploit information hiding, and to be a small language.

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  159. The A-0 system (Arithmetic Language version 0), written by Grace Murray Hopper in 1951 and 1952 for the UNIVAC I, was an early compiler related tool developed for electronic computers. The A-0 functioned more as a loader or linker than the modern notion of a compiler. A program was specified as a sequence of subroutines and arguments. The subroutines were identified by a numeric code and the arguments to the subroutines were written directly after each subroutine code. The A-0 system converted the specification into machine code that could be fed into the computer a second time to execute the said program.The A-0 system was followed by the A-1, A-2, A-3 (released as ARITH-MATIC), AT-3 (released as MATH-MATIC) and B-0 (released as FLOW-MATIC).The A-2 system was developed at the UNIVAC division of Remington Rand in 1953 and released to customers by the end of that year. Customers were provided the source code for A-2 and invited to send their improvements back to UNIVAC. Thus A-2 was an early example of free and open-source software.

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  160. is a port of the Ada programming language to the Microsoft .NET platform. A# is freely distributed by the Department of Computer Science at the United States Air Force Academy as a service to the Ada community under the terms of the GNU General Public License.AdaCore has taken over this development, and announced «GNAT for .NET», which is a fully supported .NET product with all of the features of A# and more.

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  161. he A-0 system (Arithmetic Language version 0), written by Grace Murray Hopper in 1951 and 1952 for the UNIVAC I, was an early compiler related tool developed for electronic computers. The A-0 functioned more as a loader or linker than the modern notion of a compiler. A program was specified as a sequence of subroutines and arguments. The subroutines were identified by a numeric code and the arguments to the subroutines were written directly after each subroutine code. The A-0 system converted the specification into machine code that could be fed into the computer a second time to execute the said program.The A-0 system was followed by the A-1, A-2, A-3 (released as ARITH-MATIC), AT-3 (released as MATH-MATIC) and B-0 (released as FLOW-MATIC).The A-2 system was developed at the UNIVAC division of Remington Rand in 1953 and released to customers by the end of that year. Customers were provided the source code for A-2 and invited to send their improvements back to UNIVAC. Thus A-2 was an early example of free and open-source software.

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  162. is an array programming language descendent from the programming language A, which in turn was created to replace APL in 1988. Arthur Whitney developed the A portion of A+, while other developers at Morgan Stanley extended it, adding a graphical user interface and other language features. A+ is a high-level, interactive, interpreted language, designed for numerically intensive applications, especially those found in financial applications. A+ runs on many Unix variants, including Linux. It is free and open source software released under a GNU General Public License.A+ provides an extended set of functions and operators, a graphical user interface with automatic synchronizing of widgets and variables, asynchronous executing of functions associated with variables and events, dynamic loading of user compiled subroutines, and other features. A newer graphical user interface has not yet been ported to all supported platformsThe A+ language implements the following changes to the APL language:an A+ function may have up to nine formal parametersA+ code statements are separated by semicolons, so a single statement may be divided into two or more physical linesThe explicit result of a function or operator is the result of the last statement executedA+ implements an object called a dependency, which is a global variable (the dependent variable) and an associated definition that is like a function with no arguments. Values can be explicitly set and referenced in exactly the same ways as for a global variable, but they can also be set through the associated definition.Interactive A+ development is primarily done in the Xemacs editor, through extensions to the editor. Because A+ code uses the original APL symbols, displaying A+ requires a font with those special characters; a font named kapl is provided on the web site for that purpose.Arthur Whitney went on to create a proprietary array language named K. Like J, K omits the APL character set. It lacks some of the perceived complexities of A+, such as the existence of statements and two different modes of syntax.

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  163. ++ stands for abstraction plus reference plus synthesis which is used as a name for the minimalistic programming language that is built on ARS.ARS is an abstraction from the Lambda Calculus, taking its three basic operations, and giving them a more general meaning, thus providing a foundation for the three major programming paradigms: functional programming, object-oriented programming and imperative programming.ARS Based Programming is used as a name for programming which consists mainly of applying patterns derived from ARS to programming in any language.The technical texts in this article are taken from the online version of the 1st edition of the A++-book.The 2nd edition of the book A++ The Smallest Programming Language in the World (292 pages) was published in 2018.

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  164. BAP (Advanced Business Application Programming, originally Allgemeiner Berichts-Aufbereitungs-Prozessor, German for «general report creation processor») is a high-level programming language created by the German software company SAP SE. It is currently positioned, alongside Java, as the language for programming the SAP Application Server, which is part of the NetWeaver platform for building business applications.

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  165. BC is an imperative general-purpose programming language and programming environment developed at CWI, Netherlands by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, and Steven Pemberton. It is interactive, structured, high-level, and intended to be used instead of BASIC, Pascal, or AWK. It is not meant to be a systems-programming language but is intended for teaching or prototyping.The language had a major influence on the design of the Python programming language; Guido van Rossum, who developed Python, previously worked for several years on the ABC system in the mid 1980s.

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  166. BC ALGOL is an extension of the Algol 60 programming language with arbitrary data structures and user-defined operators, targeted for symbolic mathematics. Despite its advances, it was never used as widely as Algol proper.

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  167. CC is a near-C compiler for the MS-DOS operating system on the IBM PC line of computers for programs. The compiler and compiled programs will run on any Intel 80386 or above PC running MS-DOS. Included with the compiler are a 386 assembler and a linker for combining multiple object files. There are also two libraries, which are a protected mode DOS extender (based on Thomas Pytel’s, AKA Tran’s PMODE30B + PMODE307 DOS extenders), and a library of functions callable by C programs.Pointers are 4 bytes, and can access all available memory. All memory can be allocated too. The compiler, assembler and linker are all very small and reportedly very fast.

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  168. he DASL Programming Language (Distributed Application Specification Language) is a high-level, strongly typed programming language originally developed at Sun Microsystems Laboratories between 1999 and 2003 as part of the Ace Project. The goals of the project were to enable rapid development of web-based applications based on Sun’s J2EE architecture, and to eliminate the steep learning curve of platform-specific details.DASL defines an application as a domain model with one or more logical presentation models, where a logical presentation model consists of a choreography of the domain model objects described in a set of forms with attached actions. DASL generates the graphical user interface directly from the logical presentation. DASL is unique among modern application programming languages in its ability to generate a modern graphic user interface for an application without requiring the programmer to define the user interface explicitly, while allowing the programmer to control the look and feel of the generated graphic user interface.The DASL language is partially declarative and partially procedural. Description of object/data structures and persistence, and the description of the logical presentation, are declarative. Basic object constraints and behavior are declarative, while additional object behaviors are specified procedurally as methods. Queries can be defined either declaratively or by writing methods.The language and development environment are a practical realization of the model-driven architecture (MDA) approach. The programmer uses DASL to produce the platform-independent model or PIM, and the language code generators automatically produce and deploy the platform-specific model or PSM. New PSMs may be introduced by writing new code generators.

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  169. CL2 (A Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp) is a software system consisting of a programming language, an extensible theory in a first-order logic, and an automated theorem prover. ACL2 is designed to support automated reasoning in inductive logical theories, mostly for the purpose of software and hardware verification. The input language and implementation of ACL2 are built on Common Lisp. ACL2 is free, open source (BSD license) software.The ACL2 programming language is an applicative (side-effect free) variant of Common Lisp. ACL2 is untyped. All ACL2 functions are total — that is, every function maps each object in the ACL2 universe to another object in its universe.ACL2’s base theory axiomatizes the semantics of its programming language and its built-in functions. User definitions in the programming language that satisfy a definitional principle extend the theory in a way that maintains the theory’s logical consistency.The core of ACL2’s theorem prover is based on term rewriting, and this core is extensible in that user-discovered theorems can be used as ad-hoc proof techniques for subsequent conjectures.ACL2 is intended to be an «industrial strength» version of the Boyer–Moore theorem prover, NQTHM. Toward this goal, ACL2 has many features to support clean engineering of interesting mathematical and computational theories. ACL2 also derives efficiency from being built on Common Lisp; for example, the same specification that is the basis for inductive verification can be compiled and run natively.In 2005, the authors of the Boyer-Moore family of provers, which includes ACL2, received the ACM Software System Award «for pioneering and engineering a most effective theorem prover (…) as a formal methods tool for verifying safety-critical hardware and software.»

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  170. ction! is a procedural programming language similar to ALGOL 68 that is intended to produce high-performance programs for the Atari 8-bit family. The language was written by Clinton Parker and distributed on ROM cartridge by Optimized Systems Software starting in 1983.Action! was used to develop at least two commercial products—the Homepak productivity suite and Games Computers Play client program—and numerous programs in ANALOG Computing and Antic magazines. The system was not ported to any other platforms.Parker had previously developed Micro-SPL with Henry Baker, a similar programming language for the Xerox Alto. The 6502 assembly language source code for Action! was made available under the GNU General Public License by the author in 2015.

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  171. he A-0 system (Arithmetic Language version 0), written by Grace Murray Hopper in 1951 and 1952 for the UNIVAC I, was an early compiler related tool developed for electronic computers. The A-0 functioned more as a loader or linker than the modern notion of a compiler. A program was specified as a sequence of subroutines and arguments. The subroutines were identified by a numeric code and the arguments to the subroutines were written directly after each subroutine code. The A-0 system converted the specification into machine code that could be fed into the computer a second time to execute the said program.The A-0 system was followed by the A-1, A-2, A-3 (released as ARITH-MATIC), AT-3 (released as MATH-MATIC) and B-0 (released as FLOW-MATIC).The A-2 system was developed at the UNIVAC division of Remington Rand in 1953 and released to customers by the end of that year. Customers were provided the source code for A-2 and invited to send their improvements back to UNIVAC. Thus A-2 was an early example of free and open-source software.

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  172. BC is an imperative general-purpose programming language and programming environment developed at CWI, Netherlands by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, and Steven Pemberton. It is interactive, structured, high-level, and intended to be used instead of BASIC, Pascal, or AWK. It is not meant to be a systems-programming language but is intended for teaching or prototyping.The language had a major influence on the design of the Python programming language; Guido van Rossum, who developed Python, previously worked for several years on the ABC system in the mid 1980s.

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  173. he DASL Programming Language (Distributed Application Specification Language) is a high-level, strongly typed programming language originally developed at Sun Microsystems Laboratories between 1999 and 2003 as part of the Ace Project. The goals of the project were to enable rapid development of web-based applications based on Sun’s J2EE architecture, and to eliminate the steep learning curve of platform-specific details.DASL defines an application as a domain model with one or more logical presentation models, where a logical presentation model consists of a choreography of the domain model objects described in a set of forms with attached actions. DASL generates the graphical user interface directly from the logical presentation. DASL is unique among modern application programming languages in its ability to generate a modern graphic user interface for an application without requiring the programmer to define the user interface explicitly, while allowing the programmer to control the look and feel of the generated graphic user interface.The DASL language is partially declarative and partially procedural. Description of object/data structures and persistence, and the description of the logical presentation, are declarative. Basic object constraints and behavior are declarative, while additional object behaviors are specified procedurally as methods. Queries can be defined either declaratively or by writing methods.The language and development environment are a practical realization of the model-driven architecture (MDA) approach. The programmer uses DASL to produce the platform-independent model or PIM, and the language code generators automatically produce and deploy the platform-specific model or PSM. New PSMs may be introduced by writing new code generators.

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  174. ctionScript is an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia Inc. (later acquired by Adobe Systems). It is a derivation of HyperTalk, the scripting language for HyperCard. It is now a dialect of ECMAScript (meaning it is a superset of the syntax and semantics of the language more widely known as JavaScript), though it originally arose as a sibling, both being influenced by HyperTalk.ActionScript is used primarily for the development of websites and software targeting the Adobe Flash Player platform, used on Web pages in the form of embedded SWF files.ActionScript 3 is also used with Adobe AIR system for the development of desktop and mobile applications. The language itself is open-source in that its specification is offered free of charge and both an open source compiler (as part of Apache Flex) and open source virtual machine (Mozilla Tamarin) are available.ActionScript is also used with Scaleform GFx for the development of 3D video game user interfaces and HUDs.

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  175. he Actor programming language was invented by Charles Duff of The Whitewater Group in 1988. It was an offshoot of some object-oriented extensions to the Forth language he had been working on.Actor would be categorized as a pure object-oriented language in the style of Smalltalk. Like Smalltalk, everything was an object, including small integers. A Baker semi-space garbage collector was used, along with (in memory-constrained Windows 2.1 days) a software virtual memory system that swapped objects. A token threaded interpreter, written in 16-bit x86 assembly language, was the execution mechanism for compiled code.Actor only was released on the Microsoft Windows 2.1 and 3.0 operating system. Actor used perhaps the first pure object-oriented framework over native operating system calls as its basic GUI architecture. This allowed an Actor application to look and feel exactly like a Windows application written in C, but with all the advantages of an interactive Smalltalk-like development environment. Both a downside and upside to this architecture was a tight coupling to the Windows OS architecture, with a thin abstraction layer into objects. This allowed direct use of the rich Windows OS API, but also made it nearly impossible to support any other OS without a significant rewrite of the application framework.

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  176. IMMS is a prescriptive analytics software company with offices in the Netherlands, United States, China and Singapore. AIMMS has two main product offerings that provide modeling and optimization capabilities across a variety of industries. The AIMMS Prescriptive Analytics Platform is a tool for those with an Operations Research or Analytics background. It offers unlimited flexibility to develop optimization-based applications and deploy them to business users. AIMMS SC Navigator, launched in 2017, is built on the AIMMS Prescriptive Analytics Platform and provides configurable Apps for supply chain teams. SC Navigator provides supply chain analytics to individuals without a technical or analytics background so they can get the same benefits from sophisticated analytics without needing to code or model.

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  177. lef is a discontinued concurrent programming language, designed as part of the Plan 9 operating system by Phil Winterbottom of Bell Labs. It implemented the channel-based concurrency model of Newsqueak in a compiled, C-like language.

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  178. LGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages. It was an early compromise design soon superseded by ALGOL 60. According to John Backus»The Zurich ACM-GAMM Conference had two principal motives in proposing the IAL: (a) To provide a means of communicating numerical methods and other procedures between people, and (b) To provide a means of realizing a stated process on a variety of machines…»ALGOL 58 introduced the fundamental notion of the compound statement, but it was restricted to control flow only, and it was not tied to identifier scope in the way that Algol 60’s blocks were.

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  179. LGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages. It followed on from ALGOL 58 which had introduced code blocks and the begin and end pairs for delimiting them. ALGOL 60 was the first language implementing nested function definitions with lexical scope. It gave rise to many other programming languages, including CPL, Simula, BCPL, B, Pascal and C.Niklaus Wirth based his own ALGOL W on ALGOL 60 before moving to develop Pascal. Algol-W was intended to be the next generation ALGOL but the ALGOL 68 committee decided on a design that was more complex and advanced rather than a cleaned simplified ALGOL 60. The official ALGOL versions are named after the year they were first published. Algol 68 is substantially different from Algol 60 and was criticised partially for being so, so that in general «Algol» refers to dialects of Algol 60.

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  180. lice ML is a programming language designed by the Programming Systems Laboratory at Saarland University, Saarbr?cken, Germany. It is a dialect of Standard ML, augmented with support for lazy evaluation, concurrency (multithreading and distributed computing via remote procedure calls) and constraint programming.

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  181. he Actor programming language was invented by Charles Duff of The Whitewater Group in 1988. It was an offshoot of some object-oriented extensions to the Forth language he had been working on.Actor would be categorized as a pure object-oriented language in the style of Smalltalk. Like Smalltalk, everything was an object, including small integers. A Baker semi-space garbage collector was used, along with (in memory-constrained Windows 2.1 days) a software virtual memory system that swapped objects. A token threaded interpreter, written in 16-bit x86 assembly language, was the execution mechanism for compiled code.Actor only was released on the Microsoft Windows 2.1 and 3.0 operating system. Actor used perhaps the first pure object-oriented framework over native operating system calls as its basic GUI architecture. This allowed an Actor application to look and feel exactly like a Windows application written in C, but with all the advantages of an interactive Smalltalk-like development environment. Both a downside and upside to this architecture was a tight coupling to the Windows OS architecture, with a thin abstraction layer into objects. This allowed direct use of the rich Windows OS API, but also made it nearly impossible to support any other OS without a significant rewrite of the application framework.

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