Пример статьи # 7

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Пример статьи # 7: 104 комментария

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  1. Pure, successor to the equational language Q, is a dynamically typed, functional programming language based on term rewriting. It has facilities for user-defined operator syntax, macros, arbitrary-precision arithmetic (multiple-precision numbers), and compiling to native code through the LLVM. Pure is free and open-source software distributed (mostly) under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3 or later. Pure comes with an interpreter and debugger, provides automatic memory management, has powerful functional and symbolic programming abilities, and interfaces to libraries in C (e.g., for numerics, low-level protocols, and other such tasks). At the same time, Pure is a small language designed from scratch; its interpreter is not large, and the library modules are written in Pure. The syntax of Pure resembles that of Miranda and Haskell, but it is a free-format language and thus uses explicit delimiters (rather than off-side rule indents) to denote program structure. The Pure language is a successor of the equational programming language Q, previously created by the same author, Albert Gr?f at the University of Mainz, Germany. Relative to Q, it offers some important new features (such as local functions with lexical scoping, efficient vector and matrix support, and the built-in C interface) and programs run much faster as they are compiled just-in-time to native code on the fly. Pure is mostly aimed at mathematical applications and scientific computing currently, but its interactive interpreter environment, the C interface and the growing set of addon modules make it suitable for a variety of other applications, such as artificial intelligence, symbolic computation, and real-time multimedia processing. Pure plug-ins are available for the Gnumeric spreadsheet and Miller Puckette’s Pure Data graphical multimedia software, which make it possible to extend these programs with functions written in the Pure language. Interfaces are also provided as library modules to GNU Octave, OpenCV, OpenGL, the GNU Scientific Library, FAUST, SuperCollider, and liblo (for Open Sound Control (OSC)).

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  2. Modelica is an object-oriented, declarative, multi-domain modeling language for component-oriented modeling of complex systems, e.g., systems containing mechanical, electrical, electronic, hydraulic, thermal, control, electric power or process-oriented subcomponents. The free Modelica language is developed by the non-profit Modelica Association. The Modelica Association also develops the free Modelica Standard Library that contains about 1360 generic model components and 1280 functions in various domains, as of version 3.2.1.

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  3. Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. Syntactically, it is a fairly faithful superset of ALGOL 60, also influenced by the design of Simscript.Simula 67 introduced objects, classes, inheritance and subclasses, virtual procedures, coroutines, and discrete event simulation, and features garbage collection. Also other forms of subtyping (besides inheriting subclasses) were introduced in Simula derivatives.Simula is considered the first object-oriented programming language. As its name suggests, Simula was designed for doing simulations, and the needs of that domain provided the framework for many of the features of object-oriented languages today. Simula has been used in a wide range of applications such as simulating VLSI designs, process modeling, protocols, algorithms, and other applications such as typesetting, computer graphics, and education. The influence of Simula is often understated, and Simula-type objects are reimplemented in C , Object Pascal, Java, C# and several other languages. Computer scientists such as Bjarne Stroustrup, creator of C , and James Gosling, creator of Java, have acknowledged Simula as a major influence.

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  4. TXL is a special-purpose programming language originally designed by Charles Halpern-Hamu and James Cordy at the University of Toronto in 1985. The acronym «TXL» originally stood for «Turing eXtender Language» after the language’s original purpose, the specification and rapid prototyping of variants and extensions of the Turing programming language, but no longer has any meaningful interpretation. Modern TXL is specifically designed for creating, manipulating and rapidly prototyping language-based descriptions, tools and applications using source transformation. It is a hybrid functional / rule-based language using first order functional programming at the higher level and term rewriting at the lower level. The formal semantics and implementation of TXL are based on formal term rewriting, but the term structures are largely hidden from the user due to the example-like style of pattern specification. Each TXL program has two components: a description of the source structures to be transformed, specified as a (possibly ambiguous) context-free grammar using an extended Backus–Naur Form; and a set of tree transformation rules, specified using pattern / replacement pairs combined using first order functional programming. TXL is designed to allow explicit programmer control over the interpretation, application, order and backtracking of both parsing and rewriting rules, allowing for expression of a wide range of grammar-based techniques such as agile parsing. The first component parses the input expression into a tree using pattern-matching. The second component uses Term-rewriting in a manner similar to Yacc to produce the transformed output. TXL is most commonly used in software analysis and reengineering tasks such as design recovery, and in rapid prototyping of new programming languages and dialects.

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  5. Hope is a small functional programming language developed in the 1970s at the University of Edinburgh. It predates Miranda and Haskell and is contemporaneous with ML, also developed at the University. Hope was derived from NPL, a simple functional language developed by Rod Burstall and John Darlington in their work on program transformation. NPL and Hope are notable for being the first languages with call-by-pattern evaluation and algebraic data types.Hope was named for Sir Thomas Hope (c. 1681–1771), a Scottish agricultural reformer, after whom Hope Park Square in Edinburgh, the location of the Department of Artificial Intelligence at the time of the development of Hope, was also named.

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  6. SuperCollider is an environment and programming language originally released in 1996 by James McCartney for real-time audio synthesis and algorithmic composition.Since then it has been evolving into a system used and further developed by both scientists and artists working with sound. It is an efficient and expressive dynamic programming language providing a framework for acoustic research, algorithmic music, interactive programming and live coding. Released under the terms of the GPLv2 in 2002, SuperCollider is free and open-source software.

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  7. SenseTalk is an English-like scripting language derived from the HyperTalk language used in HyperCard. SenseTalk was originally developed as the scripting language within the HyperSense multimedia authoring application on the NeXTStep and OpenStep platforms. SenseTalk resurfaced in 2002 as the scripting language in eggPlant, the first commercial Mac OS X and cross-platform GUI testing application.

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  8. Pure Data (Pd) is a visual programming language developed by Miller Puckette in the 1990s for creating interactive computer music and multimedia works. While Puckette is the main author of the program, Pd is an open-source project with a large developer base working on new extensions. It is released under a license similar to the BSD license. It runs on GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, iOS, Android and Windows. Ports exist for FreeBSD and IRIX. Pd is very similar in scope and design to Puckette’s original Max program, developed while he was at IRCAM, and is to some degree interoperable with Max/MSP, the commercial successor to the Max language. They may be collectively discussed as members of the Patcher family of languages. With the addition of the Graphics Environment for Multimedia (GEM) external, and externals designed to work with it (like Pure Data Packet / PiDiP for Linux, Mac OS X), framestein for Windows, GridFlow (as n-dimensional matrix processing, for Linux, Mac OS X, Windows), it is possible to create and manipulate video, OpenGL graphics, images, etc., in realtime with extensive possibilities for interactivity with audio, external sensors, etc. Pd is natively designed to enable live collaboration across networks or the Internet, allowing musicians connected via LAN or even in disparate parts of the globe to create music together in real time. Pd uses FUDI as a networking protocol.

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  9. COWSEL (COntrolled Working SpacE Language) is a programming language designed between 1964 and 1966 by Robin Popplestone. It was based on an RPN form of Lisp combined with some ideas from CPL. COWSEL was initially implemented on a Ferranti Pegasus computer at the University of Leeds and on a Stantec Zebra at the Bradford Institute of Technology; later, Rod Burstall implemented it on an Elliot 4120 at the University of Edinburgh. COWSEL was renamed POP-1 during the summer of 1966 and development continued under that name from then on.

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  10. P is a programming language that was developed by Microsoft and UC, Berkeley. P enables programmers to specify systems consisting of a collection of state machines that communicate asynchronously in terms of events. Code can be run on Microsoft Windows and Windows Phone, and is now open source.

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  11. Z (pronounced zee plus plus) was an object-oriented extension to the Z specification language. Z is an object-oriented extension to the Z specification language, allowing for the definition of classes, and the relation of classes through inheritance, association or aggregation. The primary construct of Z is a class. A Z class consists of a number of clauses which are optional. Z Class Structure: CLASS ClassName [OWNS List_of_attributes] [FUNCTIONS constant_definitions] [TYPE type_declaration] [ENTENDS list_of_super_classes] [OPERATIONS list_of_state_change_operations_definitions] [RETURNS list_of_query_operations_definitions] [ACTIONS all_operations_declarations] [INVARIANT predicates] [HISTORY RTL_predicates] END CLASS

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  12. Mercury is a functional logic programming language made for real-world uses. The first version was developed at the University of Melbourne, Computer Science department, by Fergus Henderson, Thomas Conway, and Zoltan Somogyi, under Somogyi’s supervision, and released on April 8, 1995. Mercury is a purely declarative logic programming language. It is related to both Prolog and Haskell. It features a strong, static, polymorphic type system, and a strong mode and determinism system. The official implementation, the Melbourne Mercury Compiler, is available for most Unix and Unix-like platforms, including Linux, macOS, and for Windows (32bits only).

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  13. Planner (often seen in publications as «PLANNER» although it is not an acronym) is a programming language designed by Carl Hewitt at MIT, and first published in 1969. First, subsets such as Micro-Planner and Pico-Planner were implemented, and then essentially the whole language was implemented as Popler by Julian Davies at the University of Edinburgh in the POP-2 programming language. Derivations such as QA4, Conniver, QLISP and Ether (see Scientific Community Metaphor) were important tools in Artificial Intelligence research in the 1970s, which influenced commercial developments such as KEE and ART.

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  14. Multithreaded, Parallel, and Distributed Programming (MPD) is a concurrent programming language whose syntax is derived from the one used in the book Foundations of Multithreaded, Parallel, and Distributed Programming. The name lists the distinguishing features of the language, namely that it supports all three of these concurrent programming techniques. MPD is implemented as a variant of the SR programming language. It has a different parser, but it uses the same intermediate form and run-time system as SR. Consequently, MPD provides the same variety of concurrent programming mechanisms as does SR. MPD programs can execute on single processors, shared-memory multiprocessors, or clusters of (homogeneous) processors. The implementation transparently supports a variety of different kinds of processors and Unix systems.

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  15. Boo is an object-oriented, statically typed, general-purpose programming language that seeks to make use of the Common Language Infrastructure’s support for Unicode, internationalization, and web applications, while using a Python-inspired syntax and a special focus on language and compiler extensibility. Some features of note include type inference, generators, multimethods, optional duck typing, macros, true closures, currying, and first-class functions. Boo was one of the three scripting languages for the Unity game engine (Unity Technologies employed De Oliveira), until it was dropped in 2014 due to the small userbase.Boo is free software released under the BSD 3-Clause license. It is compatible with the Microsoft .NET and Mono frameworks.

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  16. Cython is a programming language that aims to be a superset of the Python programming language, designed to give C-like performance with code that is written mostly in Python with optional additional C-inspired syntax.Cython is a compiled language that is typically used to generate CPython extension modules. Annotated python-like code is compiled to C or C then automatically wrapped in interface code, producing extension modules that can be loaded and used by regular Python code using the import statement, but with significantly less computational-overhead at run-time. Cython also facilitates wrapping independent C or C code into python-importable modules. Cython is written in Python and C and works on Windows, macOS, and Linux, producing source files compatible with CPython 2.6, 2.7, and 3.3 through 3.7.

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  17. Yorick is an interpreted programming language designed for numerics, graph plotting, and steering large scientific simulation codes. It is quite fast due to array syntax, and extensible via C or Fortran routines. It was created in 1996 by David H. Munro of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

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  18. ATS (Applied Type System) is a programming language designed to unify programming with formal specification. ATS has support for combining theorem proving with practical programming through the use of advanced type systems. A past version of The Computer Language Benchmarks Game has demonstrated that the performance of ATS is comparable to that of the C and C programming languages. By using theorem proving and strict type checking, the compiler can detect and prove that its implemented functions are not susceptible to bugs such as division by zero, memory leaks, buffer overflow, and other forms of memory corruption by verifying pointer arithmetic and reference counting before the program compiles. Additionally, by using the integrated theorem-proving system of ATS (ATS/LF), the programmer may make use of static constructs that are intertwined with the operative code to prove that a function attains its specification.

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  19. CLIST (Command List) (pronounced «C-List») is a procedural programming language for TSO in MVS systems. It originated in OS/360 Release 20 and has assumed a secondary role since the availability of Rexx in TSO/E Version 2. The term CLIST is also used for command lists written by users of NetView.In its basic form, a CLIST program (or «CLIST» for short) can take the form of a simple list of commands to be executed in strict sequence (like a DOS batch file (*.bat) file). However, CLIST also features If-Then-Else logic as well as loop constructs. CLIST is an interpreted language. That is, the computer must translate a CLIST every time the program is executed. CLISTs therefore tend to be slower than programs written in compiled languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN, or PL/1. (A program written in a compiled language is translated once to create a «load module» or executable.) CLIST can read/write MVS files and read/write from/to a TSO terminal. It can read parameters from the caller and also features a function to hold global variables and pass them between CLISTs. A CLIST can also call an MVS application program (written in COBOL or PL/I, for example). CLISTs can be run in background (by running JCL which executes the TSO control program (IKJEFT01)). TSO I/O screens and menus using ISPF dialog services can be displayed by CLISTs. Compare the function of CLIST with that provided by REXX.

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  20. Modula-3 is a programming language conceived as a successor to an upgraded version of Modula-2 known as Modula-2 . While it has been influential in research circles (influencing the designs of languages such as Java, C#, and Python) it has not been adopted widely in industry. It was designed by Luca Cardelli, James Donahue, Lucille Glassman, Mick Jordan (before at the Olivetti Software Technology Laboratory), Bill Kalsow and Greg Nelson at the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Systems Research Center (SRC) and the Olivetti Research Center (ORC) in the late 1980s. Modula-3’s main features are simplicity and safety while preserving the power of a systems-programming language. Modula-3 aimed to continue the Pascal tradition of type safety, while introducing new constructs for practical real-world programming. In particular Modula-3 added support for generic programming (similar to templates), multithreading, exception handling, garbage collection, object-oriented programming, partial revelation and explicit mark of unsafe code. The design goal of Modula-3 was a language that implements the most important features of modern imperative languages in quite basic forms. Thus allegedly dangerous and complicating features such as multiple inheritance and operator overloading were omitted.

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  21. Janus is a computer programming language partially described by K. Kahn and Vijay A. Saraswat in «Actors as a special case of concurrent constraint (logic) programming», in SIGPLAN Notices, October 1990. Janus is a concurrent constraint language without backtracking. Janus models concurrency through the use of bag channels. Code that needs to send a message to a process does so by constraining a bag to be the union of another bag and the singleton bag of the message. The other bag is then available to be constrained for sending subsequent messages. The process receives the message by matching the bag to a pattern that says it is the union of some singleton and some other bag. The logic of the bag channels produces a property shared by the actor model, namely that the order of arrival of the messages is not guaranteed. However, unlike actors in the actor model, processes in Janus can pass around their «mailboxes» so to speak, in the form of bags, and can hold more than one. This ability to pass mailboxes around and hold more than one is inherited in computer programming language ToonTalk, which is influenced by Janus. Janus, the programming language, is named after Janus, the two-faced Roman god, because every logical variable in Janus has as its two «faces», two aspects that can be passed as arguments. These are called the asker and the teller. These represent, respectively, the right to ask the value of the variable (or some characteristic of the value) and the right to tell the value (or to tell some constraint on what the value can be). The asker and teller aspects can be passed around as arguments independently of each other. Neither right implies the other right. The syntax of the language prevents copying a teller or exercising it more than once. Logical contradiction is statically prevented, according to Kahn and Saraswat.

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  22. HAGGIS is a high-level reference programming language used primarily to examine Computing Science for Scottish pupils taking SQA courses on the subject. HAGGIS is used as a tool to bridge the gap between pseudocode and typical computer programming.HAGGIS is not based on any one language but a mixture that is intended to allow a pupil familiar with any of the many languages used in classrooms to easily understand the syntactic construct being used in an example. It has multiple programming paradigms of functional, imperative and object-oriented to suit this purpose.There are three separate language definitions, one for each level at which computing is assessed by the SQA; these are proper subsets of each other, so for example any program contained by the National 5 level language is also well-defined at Higher and Advanced Higher levels. Higher includes the definition of procedures and functions and the use of record types and files, while Advanced Higher includes object-orientation. Online HAGGIS interpreters have been developed to provide a way for examiners and teachers to check their programs are correctly defined and behave as expected.

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  23. PureBasic is a commercially distributed procedural computer programming language and integrated development environment based on BASIC and developed by Fantaisie Software for Windows 32/64-bit, Linux 32/64-bit, and macOS. An Amiga version is available, although it has been discontinued and some parts of it are released as open source. The first public release of PureBasic for Windows was on December 17, 2000. It has been continually updated since. PureBasic has a «lifetime license model». As cited on the website, the very first PureBasic user (who registered in 1998) still has free access to new updates and this is not going to change.PureBasic compiles directly to x86, x86-64, PowerPC or 680×0 instruction sets, generating small standalone executables and DLLs which need no runtime libraries beyond the standard system libraries. Programs developed without using the platform-specific application programming interfaces (APIs) can be built easily from the same source file with little or no modification. PureBasic supports inline assembly, allowing the developer to include FASM assembler commands within PureBasic source code, while using the variables declared in PureBasic source code, enabling experienced programmers to improve the speed of speed-critical sections of code. PureBasic supports and has integrated the OGRE 3D Environment. Other 3D environments such as the Irrlicht Engine are unofficially supported.

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  24. DIGITAL Command Language (DCL) is the standard command language adopted by most of the operating systems (OSs) that were sold by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (which was acquired by Compaq, which was in turn acquired by Hewlett-Packard). DCL had its roots in the IAS, TOPS-20, and RT-11 OSs and was implemented as a standard across most of Digital’s OSs, notably RSX-11, but took its most powerful form in the OpenVMS OS. Written when the programming language Fortran was in heavy use, DCL is a scripting language supporting several datatypes, including strings, integers, bit arrays, arrays and booleans, but not floating point numbers. Access to OpenVMS system services (kernel API) is through lexical functions, which perform the same as their compiled language counterparts and allow scripts to get information on system state. DCL includes IF-THEN-ELSE, access to all the Record Management Services (RMS) file types including stream, indexed, and sequential, but unfortunately lacks a DO-WHILE or other looping construct, requiring users to make do with IF and GOTO-label statements instead. DCL is available for other operating systems as well, including VCL and VX/DCL for Unix, VCL for MS-DOS, OS/2 and Windows, PC-DCL and Open DCL for Windows/Linux and Accelr8 DCL Lite for Windows.DCL is the basis of the XLNT language, implemented on Windows by an interpreter-IDE-WSH engine combination with CGI capabilities distributed by Advanced System Concepts Inc. from 1997.

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  25. COMAL (Common Algorithmic Language) is a computer programming language developed in Denmark by Benedict L?fstedt and B?rge R. Christensen in 1973. COMAL was one of the few structured programming languages that was available for and comfortably usable on 8-bit home computers. The «COMAL Kernel Syntax & Semantics» contains the formal definition of the language. Further extensions common to many implementations are described in.

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  26. Alma-0 is a multi-paradigm computer programming language. This language is an augmented version of the imperative Modula-2 language with logic-programming features and convenient backtracking capability. It is small, strongly typed, and combines constraint programming, a limited number of features inspired by logic programming and supports imperative paradigms. The language advocates declarative programming. The designers claim that search-oriented solutions built with it are substantially simpler than their counterparts written in purely imperative or logic programming style. [1] Alma-0 provides natural, high-level constructs for the construction of search trees.

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  27. Nim (formerly named Nimrod) is an imperative, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language designed and developed by Andreas Rumpf. It is designed to be «efficient, expressive, and elegant», supporting metaprogramming, functional, message passing, procedural, and object-oriented programming styles by providing several features such as compile time code generation, algebraic data types, a foreign function interface (FFI) with C and compiling to JavaScript, C, and C .

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  28. A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a command line user interface for Unix-like operating systems. The shell is both an interactive command language and a scripting language, and is used by the operating system to control the execution of the system using shell scripts.Users typically interact with a Unix shell using a terminal emulator; however, direct operation via serial hardware connections or Secure Shell are common for server systems. All Unix shells provide filename wildcarding, piping, here documents, command substitution, variables and control structures for condition-testing and iteration.

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  29. Rapira is also a name for the T-12 antitank gun.Rapira (Russian: Рапира, rapier) is an educational procedural programming language developed in the Soviet Union and implemented on Agat computer, PDP-11 clones (Electronika, DVK, BK series) and Intel-8080/Z80 clones (Korvet). It was an interpreted language with dynamic type system and high level constructions. The language originally had a Russian-based set of keywords, but English and Moldovan were added later. Also, it was more elegant and easier to use than existing Pascal implementations of the time. Rapira was used in teaching computer programming in Soviet schools. The programming environment included a text editor and an integrated debugger. Sample program: ПРОЦ СТАРТ() ВЫВОД: ‘Привет, мир!!!’ КОН ПРОЦ The same, but using the English lexics [sic, from the article referenced below]: proc start() output: ‘Hello, world!!!’; end proc Rapira’s ideology was based on such languages as POP-2 and SETL, with strong influences from ALGOL. Consequently, for example, Rapira implements a very strong, flexible and interesting data structure, so-named ‘tuples’. Actually, tuples in Rapira are heterogeneous lists with such allowed operations as indexing, joining, length count, getting of sublist, easy comparison, etc.

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  30. Self is an object-oriented programming language based on the concept of prototypes. Self began as a dialect of Smalltalk, being dynamically typed and using just-in-time compilation (JIT) as well as the prototype-based approach to objects: it was first used as an experimental test system for language design in the 1980s and 1990s. In 2006, Self was still being developed as part of the Klein project, which was a Self virtual machine written fully in Self. The latest version is 2017.1 released in May 2017.Several just-in-time compilation techniques were pioneered and improved in Self research as they were required to allow a very high level object oriented language to perform at up to half the speed of optimized C. Much of the development of Self took place at Sun Microsystems, and the techniques they developed were later deployed for Java’s HotSpot virtual machine. At one point a version of Smalltalk was implemented in Self. Because it was able to use the JIT, this also gave extremely good performance.

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  31. B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969. It is the work of Ken Thompson with Dennis Ritchie. B was derived from BCPL, and its name may be a contraction of BCPL. Thompson’s coworker Dennis Ritchie speculated that the name might be based on Bon, an earlier, but unrelated, programming language that Thompson designed for use on Multics.B was designed for recursive, non-numeric, machine-independent applications, such as system and language software.

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  32. RTL/2 was a high-level programming language developed at Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd by J.G.P. Barnes. It was originally used internally within ICI but was distributed by SPL International in 1974 It was designed for use in real-time computing (hence the initials RTL = real-time language). Based on concepts from Algol 68, it was intended to be a small, simple language. RTL/2 was standardised in 1980 by the British Standards Institution.RTL/2 was a strongly typed language with separate compilation. The compilation units contained one or more items known as «bricks», i.e.: procedure bricks, data bricks, stack bricks.A procedure brick was a procedure, which may or may not return a (scalar) value, have (scalar) parameters, or have local (scalar) variables. The entry mechanism and implementation of local variables was re-entrant. Non-scalar data could only be accessed via reference (so-called REF variables were considered scalar). A data brick was a named static collection of scalars, arrays and records. Programmers had to implement memory management themselves (there was no heap or garbage collection). A stack brick was an area of storage reserved for running all the procedures of a single process and contained the call stack, local variables and other housekeeping items. The extent to which stack bricks were actually used varied depending upon the host environment in which RTL/2 programs actually ran. Access to the host environment of an RTL/2 program was provided via special procedure and data bricks called SVC procedures and SVC data. These were accessible in RTL/2 but implemented in some other language in the host environment.

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  33. The Netwide Assembler (NASM) is an assembler and disassembler for the Intel x86 architecture. It can be used to write 16-bit, 32-bit (IA-32) and 64-bit (x86-64) programs. NASM is considered to be one of the most popular assemblers for Linux.NASM was originally written by Simon Tatham with assistance from Julian Hall. As of 2016, it is maintained by a small team led by H. Peter Anvin. It is open-source software released under the terms of a simplified (2-clause) BSD license.

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  34. Elm is a domain-specific programming language for declaratively creating web browser-based graphical user interfaces. Elm is purely functional, and is developed with emphasis on usability, performance, and robustness. It advertises «no runtime exceptions in practice», made possible by the Elm compiler’s static type checking.

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  35. ZPL (short for Z-level Programming Language) is an array programming language designed to replace C and C programming languages in engineering and scientific applications. Because its design goal was to obtain cross-platform high performance, ZPL programs run fast on both sequential and parallel computers. Highly-parallel ZPL programs are simple and easy to write because it exclusively uses implicit parallelism. Originally called Orca C, ZPL was designed and implemented during 1993-1995 by the Orca Project of the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Washington.

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  36. Plus is a «Pascal-like» system implementation language from the University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada, based on the SUE system language developed at the University of Toronto, c. 1971.There is another programming language named PLUS, developed at Sperry Univac in Roseville, Minnesota, but the Univac PLUS is not the subject of this article.

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  37. A# is a port of the Ada programming language to the Microsoft .NET platform. A# is freely distributed by the Department of Computer Science at the United States Air Force Academy as a service to the Ada community under the terms of the GNU General Public License.AdaCore has taken over this development, and announced «GNAT for .NET», which is a fully supported .NET product with all of the features of A# and more.

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  38. ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming, originally Allgemeiner Berichts-Aufbereitungs-Prozessor, German for «general report creation processor») is a high-level programming language created by the German software company SAP SE. It is currently positioned, alongside Java, as the language for programming the SAP Application Server, which is part of the NetWeaver platform for building business applications.

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  39. ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming, originally Allgemeiner Berichts-Aufbereitungs-Prozessor, German for «general report creation processor») is a high-level programming language created by the German software company SAP SE. It is currently positioned, alongside Java, as the language for programming the SAP Application Server, which is part of the NetWeaver platform for building business applications.

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  40. C/AL (Client/server Application Language) is the programming language used within C/SIDE the Client/Server Integrated Development Environment in Microsoft Dynamics NAV (Formerly known as Navision Attain). C/AL is a Database specific programming language, and is primarily used for retrieving, inserting and modifying records in a Navision database. C/AL resembles the Pascal language on which it is based. The original C/AL compiler was written by Michael Nielsen.

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  41. Mary was a programming language designed and implemented by RUNIT at Trondheim, Norway in the 1970s. It borrowed many features from ALGOL 68 but was designed for machine-oriented programming. An unusual feature of its syntax was that expressions were constructed using the conventional infix operators, but all of them had the same precedence and evaluation went from left to right unless there were brackets. Assignment had the destination on the right and assignment was considered just another operator. Similar to C, several language features appear to have existed to allow programmers to produce reasonably well optimised code, despite a quite primitive code generator in the compiler. These included operators similar to the = et alter in C and explicit register declarations for variables. Notable features: «Dataflow syntax» — values flow from left to right, including assignment. Most constructs could be used in expressions (blocks, IF, CASE, etc.). Text-based recursive macros. Overloaded user-defined operators, not constrained to predefined identifiers as in C . Automatic building and dereferencing of pointers from type context. Scalar range types. Array and set enumeration in loop iterators. Dynamic array descriptors (ROW).A book describing Mary was printed in 1974 (Fourth and last edition in 1979): Mary Textbook by Reidar Conradi & Per Holager. Compilers were made for Kongsberg V?penfabrikk’s SM-4 and Norsk Data Nord-10/ND-100 mini-computers. The original Mary compiler was written in NU ALGOL, ran on the Univac-1100 series and was used to bootstrap a native compiler for ND-100/SINTRAN-III. RUNIT implemented a CHILL compiler written in Mary which ran on ND-100 and had Intel 8086 and 80286 targets. When this compiler was ported to the VAX platform, a common backend for Mary and CHILL was implemented. Later, backends for i386 and SPARC were available. Since the Mary compiler was implemented in Mary, it was possible to run the compiler on all these platforms. Mary is no longer maintained.

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  42. In computer science, communicating sequential processes (CSP) is a formal language for describing patterns of interaction in concurrent systems. It is a member of the family of mathematical theories of concurrency known as process algebras, or process calculi, based on message passing via channels. CSP was highly influential in the design of the occam programming language, and also influenced the design of programming languages such as Limbo, RaftLib, Go, Crystal, and Clojure’s core.async. CSP was first described in a 1978 paper by Tony Hoare, but has since evolved substantially. CSP has been practically applied in industry as a tool for specifying and verifying the concurrent aspects of a variety of different systems, such as the T9000 Transputer, as well as a secure ecommerce system. The theory of CSP itself is also still the subject of active research, including work to increase its range of practical applicability (e.g., increasing the scale of the systems that can be tractably analyzed).

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  43. Datalog is a declarative logic programming language that syntactically is a subset of Prolog. It is often used as a query language for deductive databases. In recent years, Datalog has found new application in data integration, information extraction, networking, program analysis, security, and cloud computing.Its origins date back to the beginning of logic programming, but it became prominent as a separate area around 1977 when Herv? Gallaire and Jack Minker organized a workshop on logic and databases. David Maier is credited with coining the term Datalog.

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  44. EGL (Enterprise Generation Language), originally developed by IBM and now available as the EDT (EGL Development Tools) Open Source project under the Eclipse Public License (EPL), is a programming technology designed to meet the challenges of modern, multi-platform application development by providing a common language and programming model across languages, frameworks, and runtime platforms. The language borrows concepts familiar to anyone using statically typed languages like Java, COBOL, C, etc. However, it borrows the concept of stereotype from Unified Modeling Language (UML) that is not typically found in statically typed programming languages. In a nutshell, EGL is a higher-level, universal application development language. EGL is similar in syntax to other common languages so it can be learned by application developers with similar previous programming background. EGL application development abstractions shield programmers from the technical interfaces of systems and middleware allowing them to focus on building business functionality. EGL applications and services are written, tested and debugged at the EGL source level, and once they are satisfactorily functionally tested they can be compiled into COBOL, Java, or JavaScript code to support deployment of business applications that can run in any of the following environments: Platforms with a Java virtual machine, such as Microsoft Windows, Linux, and UNIX, for example in the context of a Java EE servlet container (IBM WebSphere Application Server, Apache Tomcat, GlassFish) IBM System z: CICS Transaction Server, IMS, z/OS Batch, UNIX System Services, WebSphere Application Server, z/VSE, Linux IBM System i: IBM i5/OS, IBM WebSphere Application Server, Apache Tomcat, Integrated Web Application Server for i Web browsers supporting JavaScript, such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Safari, for Ajax rich web applications

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  45. SYMPL is an obsolete programming language developed by the Control Data Corporation (CDC) for use on the CDC 6000 series computer systems in the 1970s and 1980s. It was based on a subset of CDCs version of JOVIAL, as an alternative to assembly language. A number of important CDC software products were implemented in SYMPL, including compilers, libraries, a full-screen editor, and major subsystems. SYMPL is a compiled, imperative, and procedural language. Compared to the Fortran of the day, SYMPL supports: Stronger data typing — All variables must be declared prior to use, Data structures — Including «based» dynamically allocated structures, Structured programming constructs, Nested procedures, In-fix «bead» (bit) and character manipulation A simple macro facilitySimplifications compared to JOVIAL include: fewer built-in data types, no recursive calls to procedures, and no COMPOOL concept.

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  46. SenseTalk is an English-like scripting language derived from the HyperTalk language used in HyperCard. SenseTalk was originally developed as the scripting language within the HyperSense multimedia authoring application on the NeXTStep and OpenStep platforms. SenseTalk resurfaced in 2002 as the scripting language in eggPlant, the first commercial Mac OS X and cross-platform GUI testing application.

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  47. Opa is an open-source programming language for developing scalable web applications. It can be used for both client-side and server-side scripting, where complete programs are written in Opa and subsequently compiled to Node.js on the server and JavaScript on the client, with the compiler automating all communication between the two. Opa implements strong, static typing, which can be helpful in protecting against security issues such as SQL injections and cross-site scripting attacks.The language was first officially presented at the OWASP conference in 2010, and the source code was released on GitHub in June 2011, under a GNU Affero General Public License. Later, the license changed to the MIT license for the framework part (library) and AGPL for the compiler so that applications written in Opa can be released under any license, proprietary or open source.

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  48. The Klerer-May System is a programming language developed in the mid-1960s, oriented to numerical scientific programming, whose most notable feature is its two-dimensional syntax based on traditional mathematical notation. For input and output, the Klerer-May system used a Friden Flexowriter modified to allow half-line motions for subscripts and superscripts. The character set included digits, upper-case letters, subsets of 14 lower-case Latin letters and 18 Greek letters, arithmetic operators ( ? ? / |) and punctuation (. , ( )), and eight special line-drawing characters (resembling ? ? ? _ ? ? ? ?) used to construct multi-line brackets and symbols for summation, products, roots, and for multi-line division or fractions. The system was intended to be forgiving of input mistakes, and easy to learn; its reference manual was only two pages.The system was developed by Melvin Klerer and Jack May at Columbia University’s Hudson Laboratories in Dobbs Ferry, New York, for the Office of Naval Research, and ran on GE-200 series computers.

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  49. Vala is an object-oriented programming language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code and uses the GObject system. Vala is syntactically similar to C# and includes notable features such as: anonymous functions, signals, properties, generics, assisted memory management, exception handling, type inference, and foreach statements. Its developers, J?rg Billeter and Raffaele Sandrini, wanted to bring these features to the plain C runtime with little overhead and no special runtime support by targeting the GObject object system. Rather than compiling directly to machine code or assembly language, it compiles to a lower level intermediate language. It source-to-source compiles to C, which is then compiled with a C compiler for a given platform, such as GCC.For memory management, the GObject system provides reference counting. In C, a programmer must manually manage adding and removing references, but in Vala, managing such reference counts is automated if a programmer uses the language’s built-in reference types rather than plain pointers. Using functionality from native code libraries requires writing vapi files, defining the library interfacing. Writing these interface definitions is well-documented for C libraries, especially when based on GObject. However, C libraries are not supported. Vapi files are provided for a large portion of the GNOME platform, including GTK . Vala was conceived by J?rg Billeter and was implemented by him and Raffaele Sandrini, finishing a self-hosting compiler in May 2006.

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  50. PeopleCode is a proprietary object-oriented programming language used to express business logic for PeopleSoft applications. Syntactically, PeopleCode is similar to other programming languages, and can be found in both loosely-typed and strongly-typed forms. PeopleCode and its run-time environment is part of the larger PeopleTools framework. PeopleCode has evolved over time and its implementation through the PeopleSoft applications lack consistency. PeopleCode offers some interoperability with the Java programming language. Definition name references, for example, enable you to refer to PeopleTools definitions, such as record definitions or pages, without using hard-coded string literals. Other language features, such as PeopleCode data types and metastrings, reflect the close interaction of PeopleTools and Structured Query Language (SQL). Dot notation, classes and methods in PeopleCode are similar to other object oriented languages, like Java. Object syntax was an important feature of PeopleTools 8.

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  51. Crystal is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language, designed and developed by Ary Borenszweig, Juan Wajnerman, Brian Cardiff and more than 300 contributors. With syntax inspired by the language Ruby, it is a compiled language with static type-checking, but specifying the types of variables or method arguments is generally unneeded. Types are resolved by an advanced global type inference algorithm. Crystal is in active development. It is released as free and open-source software under the Apache License version 2.0.

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  52. JavaFX Script was a scripting language designed by Sun Microsystems, forming part of the JavaFX family of technologies on the Java Platform. JavaFX targeted the Rich Internet Application domain (competing with Adobe Flex and Microsoft Silverlight), specializing in rapid development of visually rich applications for the desktop and mobile markets. JavaFX Script works with integrated development environments such as NetBeans, Eclipse and IntelliJ IDEA. JavaFX is released under the GNU General Public License, via the Sun sponsored OpenJFX project.

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  53. SIMSCRIPT is a free-form, English-like general-purpose simulation language conceived by Harry Markowitz and Bernard Hausner at the RAND Corporation in 1962. It was implemented as a Fortran preprocessor on the IBM 7090 and was designed for large discrete event simulations. It influenced Simula.Though earlier versions were released into the public domain, SIMSCRIPT was commercialized by Markowitz’s company, California Analysis Center, Inc. (CACI), which produced proprietary versions SIMSCRIPT I.5 and SIMSCRIPT II.5.

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  54. APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson. Its central datatype is the multidimensional array. It uses a large range of special graphic symbols to represent most functions and operators, leading to very concise code. It has been an important influence on the development of concept modeling, spreadsheets, functional programming, and computer math packages. It has also inspired several other programming languages.

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  55. The PL/P programming language (an acronym of Programming Language for Prime (computers)) is a mid-level programming language developed by Prime Computer to serve as their second primary system programming language after Fortran IV. PL/P was a subset of PL/I. Additions to the PRIMOS operating system for Prime 50 Series computers were written mostly in PL/P in later years. Certain PRIMOS modules written in Fortran IV during PRIMOS’s early years were rewritten in PL/P. PL/P was the most widespread compiled programming language used for commercial PRIMOS applications, outpacing the use of the Prime C compiler, the CPL (PRIMOS) scripting language, and the Fortran IV compiler in commercial applications.

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  56. Idris is a general-purpose purely functional programming language with dependent types, strict or optional lazy evaluation and features such as a totality checker. Even before its possible usage for interactive theorem-proving, the focus of Idris is on general-purpose programming, like the purely functional Haskell, and with sufficient performance. The type system of Idris is similar to the one used by Agda and theorem-proving in it is similar to Coq, including tactics. In comparison, Idris has a priority on easy management of side-effects and support for implementing embedded domain specific languages. As of May 2017, Idris compiles to C (relying on a custom copying garbage collector using Cheney’s algorithm) and JavaScript (both browser- and Node.js-based). There are also a number of third-party code generators for other platforms, including Java, JVM, CIL, OCaml, and a partial LLVM backend.The name Idris goes back to the character of the singing dragon in the 1970s UK children’s television program Ivor the Engine.

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  57. OptimJ is an extension of the Java with language support for writing optimization models and abstractions for bulk data processing. The extensions and the proprietary product implementing the extensions were developed by Ateji which went out of business in September 2011. OptimJ aims at providing a clear and concise algebraic notation for optimization modeling, removing compatibility barriers between optimization modeling and application programming tools, and bringing software engineering techniques such as object-orientation and modern IDE support to optimization experts. OptimJ models are directly compatible with Java source code, existing Java libraries such as database access, Excel connection or graphical interfaces. OptimJ is compatible with development tools such as Eclipse, CVS, JUnit or JavaDoc. OptimJ is available free with the following solvers: lp_solve, glpk, LP or MPS file formats and also supports the following commercial solvers: Gurobi, MOSEK, IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio.

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  58. Job Control Language (JCL) is a name for scripting languages used on IBM mainframe operating systems to instruct the system on how to run a batch job or start a subsystem.More specifically, the purpose of JCL is to say which programs to run, using which files or devices for input or output, and at times to also indicate under what conditions to skip a step. There are two distinct IBM Job Control languages: one for the operating system lineage that begins with DOS/360 and whose latest member is z/VSE; and the other for the lineage from OS/360 to z/OS, the latter now including JES extensions, Job Entry Control Language (JECL).They share some basic syntax rules and a few basic concepts, but are otherwise very different.

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  59. XPL is a programming language based on PL/I, a portable one-pass compiler written in its own language, and a parser generator tool for easily implementing similar compilers for other languages. XPL was designed in 1967 as a way to teach compiler design principles and as starting point for students to build compilers for their own languages. XPL was designed and implemented by William M. McKeeman and David B. Wortman at University of California, Santa Cruz and James J. Horning and others at Stanford University. XPL was first announced at the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference. The methods and compiler are described in detail in the 1971 textbook A Compiler Generator. They called the combined work a ‘compiler generator’. But that implies little or no language- or target-specific programming is required to build a compiler for a new language or new target. A better label for XPL is a translator writing system. It helps to write a compiler with less new or changed programming code.

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  60. AngelScript is a game-oriented interpreted compiled scripting language. AngelScript features static typing, object handles (similar to C pointers but garbage collected via reference counting), object-orientation, single inheritance, multiple inheritance with interfaces. Allows operators to be registered and overloaded. AngelScript can be used with any C IDE, such as Netbeans, Geany, Eclipse, and also supported by AngelJuice IDE developed specifically for the language. C and C functions can be called within an AngelScript environment. AngelScript’s class syntax closely follows C classes by design: no proxy functions are required to embed AngelScript in C applications easing the two languages integration. There are several differences of AngelScript and C : AngelScript does not support multiple inheritance. Multiple-inheritance functionality may be achieved with Interfaces. It is impossible to declare methods or properties outside of the class body. All methods (including constructors and destructors) are virtual.AngelScript is used in video game development, including Amnesia: The Dark Descent, Amy, Dustforce, Gekkeiju Online, King Arthur’s Gold, Legend of the Guardians: The Owls of Ga’Hoole, Overgrowth, Penumbra: Overture, Penumbra: Requiem, Puddle, Rigs of Rods, Sine Mora, Star Ruler, SuperTuxKart, Warhammer: Mark of Chaos, Warsow, Sven Co-op, Jazz Jackrabbit 2 Plus, Urho3D. AngelScript is used at the University of Ulm in interactive 3D-Animation program. AngelScript is also used in robotics, for example, to program behavioral rules of robotic agents.

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  61. DIGITAL Command Language (DCL) is the standard command language adopted by most of the operating systems (OSs) that were sold by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (which was acquired by Compaq, which was in turn acquired by Hewlett-Packard). DCL had its roots in the IAS, TOPS-20, and RT-11 OSs and was implemented as a standard across most of Digital’s OSs, notably RSX-11, but took its most powerful form in the OpenVMS OS. Written when the programming language Fortran was in heavy use, DCL is a scripting language supporting several datatypes, including strings, integers, bit arrays, arrays and booleans, but not floating point numbers. Access to OpenVMS system services (kernel API) is through lexical functions, which perform the same as their compiled language counterparts and allow scripts to get information on system state. DCL includes IF-THEN-ELSE, access to all the Record Management Services (RMS) file types including stream, indexed, and sequential, but unfortunately lacks a DO-WHILE or other looping construct, requiring users to make do with IF and GOTO-label statements instead. DCL is available for other operating systems as well, including VCL and VX/DCL for Unix, VCL for MS-DOS, OS/2 and Windows, PC-DCL and Open DCL for Windows/Linux and Accelr8 DCL Lite for Windows.DCL is the basis of the XLNT language, implemented on Windows by an interpreter-IDE-WSH engine combination with CGI capabilities distributed by Advanced System Concepts Inc. from 1997.

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  62. AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool. It is a standard feature of most Unix-like operating systems. The AWK language is a data-driven scripting language consisting of a set of actions to be taken against streams of textual data – either run directly on files or used as part of a pipeline – for purposes of extracting or transforming text, such as producing formatted reports. The language extensively uses the string datatype, associative arrays (that is, arrays indexed by key strings), and regular expressions. While AWK has a limited intended application domain and was especially designed to support one-liner programs, the language is Turing-complete, and even the early Bell Labs users of AWK often wrote well-structured large AWK programs.AWK was created at Bell Labs in the 1970s, and its name is derived from the surnames of its authors—Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan. The acronym is pronounced the same as the name of the bird auk (which acts as an emblem of the language such as on The AWK Programming Language book cover – the book is often referred to by the abbreviation TAPL). When written in all lowercase letters, as awk, it refers to the Unix or Plan 9 program that runs scripts written in the AWK programming language.

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  63. FP (short for function programming) is a programming language created by John Backus to support the function-level programming paradigm. This allows eliminating named variables. The language was introduced in Backus’s 1977 Turing Award lecture, «Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?», subtitled «a functional style and its algebra of programs.» The paper sparked interest in functional programming research, eventually leading to modern functional languages, and not the function-level paradigm Backus had hoped. FP itself never found much use outside of academia. In the 1980s Backus created a successor language, FL, which remained a research project.

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  64. Cuneiform is an open-source workflow language for large-scale scientific data analysis. It is a statically typed functional programming language promoting parallel computing. It features a versatile foreign function interface allowing users to integrate software from many external programming languages. At the organizational level Cuneiform provides facilities like conditional branching and general recursion making it Turing-complete. In this, Cuneiform is the attempt to close the gap between scientific workflow systems like Taverna, KNIME, or Galaxy and large-scale data analysis programming models like MapReduce or Pig Latin while offering the generality of a functional programming language. Cuneiform is implemented in distributed Erlang. If run in distributed mode it drives a POSIX-compliant distributed file system like Gluster or Ceph (or a FUSE integration of some other file system, e.g., HDFS). Alternatively, Cuneiform scripts can be executed on top of HTCondor or Hadoop.Cuneiform is influenced by the work of Peter Kelly who proposes functional programming as a model for scientific workflow execution. In this, Cuneiform is distinct from related workflow languages based on dataflow programming like Swift or Nextflow.

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  65. XOTcl is an object-oriented extension for the Tool Command Language created by Gustaf Neumann and Uwe Zdun. It is a derivative of MIT OTcl. XOTcl is based on a dynamic object system with metaclasses which as influenced by CLOS. Class and method definitions are completely dynamic. XOTcl provides language support for design patterns via filters and decorator mixins.

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  66. Pike is an interpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic programming language, with a syntax similar to that of C. Unlike many other dynamic languages, Pike is both statically and dynamically typed, and requires explicit type definitions. It features a flexible type system that allows the rapid development and flexible code of dynamically typed languages, while still providing some of the benefits of a statically typed language. Pike features garbage collection, advanced data types, and first-class anonymous functions, with support for many programming paradigms, including object-oriented, functional and imperative programming. Pike is free software, released under the GPL, LGPL and MPL licenses.

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  67. sed (stream editor) is a Unix utility that parses and transforms text, using a simple, compact programming language. sed was developed from 1973 to 1974 by Lee E. McMahon of Bell Labs, and is available today for most operating systems. sed was based on the scripting features of the interactive editor ed («editor», 1971) and the earlier qed («quick editor», 1965–66). sed was one of the earliest tools to support regular expressions, and remains in use for text processing, most notably with the substitution command. Popular alternative tools for plaintext string manipulation and «stream editing» include AWK and Perl.

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  68. High Level Assembly (HLA) is a high-level assembly language developed by Randall Hyde. It allows the use of higher-level language constructs to aid both beginners and advanced assembly developers. It fully supports advanced data types and object-oriented programming. It uses a syntax loosely based on several high-level programming languages (HLLs), such as Pascal, Ada, Modula-2, and C , to allow creating readable assembly language programs, and to allow HLL programmers to learn HLA as fast as possible.

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