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Пример статьи # 10: 32 комментария

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  1. The Persistence of Vision Ray Tracer, or POV-Ray, is a ray tracing program which generates images from a text-based scene description, and is available for a variety of computer platforms. It was originally based on DKBTrace, written by David Kirk Buck and Aaron A. Collins for the Amiga computers. There are also influences from the earlier Polyray raytracer contributed by its author Alexander Enzmann. POV-Ray is free and open-source software with the source code available under the AGPLv3.

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  2. Simulink, developed by MathWorks, is a graphical programming environment for modeling, simulating and analyzing multidomain dynamical systems. Its primary interface is a graphical block diagramming tool and a customizable set of block libraries. It offers tight integration with the rest of the MATLAB environment and can either drive MATLAB or be scripted from it. Simulink is widely used in automatic control and digital signal processing for multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design.

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  3. The XSharp compiler is a compiler intended to support multiple dialects in the xBase programming language family. The project is intended as an opensource community effort, but is at the moment still partly closed source.Because the XSharp compiler is based upon the Roslyn compiler for C#, new language constructs are available in all supported dialects.

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  4. Argus is a programming language created at MIT by Barbara Liskov between 1982 and 1988, in collaboration with Maurice Herlihy, Paul Johnson, Robert Scheifler, and William Weihl. It is an extension of the CLU language, and utilizes most of the same syntax and semantics. Argus was designed to support the creation of distributed programs, by encapsulating related procedures within objects called guardians, and by supporting atomic operations called actions.

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  5. Maxima () is a computer algebra system (CAS) based on a 1982 version of Macsyma. It is written in Common Lisp and runs on all POSIX platforms such as macOS, Unix, BSD, and Linux, as well as under Microsoft Windows and Android. It is free software released under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).

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  6. Pizza is an open-source superset of Java 1.4, prior to the introduction of generics for the Java programming language. In addition to its own solution for adding generics to the language, Pizza also added function pointers and algebraic types with case classes and pattern matching.In August 2001, the developers made a compiler capable of working with Java. Most Pizza applications can run in a Java environment, but certain cases will cause problems.Work on Pizza has more or less stopped since 2002. Its main developers have concentrated instead on the Generic Java project, another attempt to add generics to Java which was eventually adopted into the official language version 1.5. The pattern matching and other functional programming-like features have been further developed in the Scala programming language. Martin Odersky remarked, «we wanted to integrate the functional and object-oriented parts in a cleaner way than what we were able to achieve before with the Pizza language. […] In Pizza we did a clunkier attempt, and in Scala I think we achieved a much smoother integration between the two.»

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  7. ARexx is an implementation of the Rexx language for the Amiga, written in 1987 by William S. Hawes, with a number of Amiga-specific features beyond standard REXX facilities. Like most REXX implementations, ARexx is an interpreted language. Programs written for ARexx are called «scripts», or «macros»; several programs offer the ability to run ARexx scripts in their main interface as macros.ARexx can easily communicate with third-party software that implements an «ARexx port». Any Amiga application or script can define a set of commands and functions for ARexx to address, thus making the capabilities of the software available to the scripts written in ARexx.ARexx can direct commands and functions to several applications from the same script, thus offering the opportunity to mix and match functions from the different programs. For example, an ARexx script could extract data from a database, insert the data into a spreadsheet to perform calculations on it, then insert tables and charts based on the results into a word processor document.

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  8. The PL/M programming language (an acronym of Programming Language for Microcomputers)is a high-level language conceived and developed by Gary Kildall in 1973 for Hank Smith at Intel for its microprocessors.The language incorporated ideas from PL/I, ALGOL and XPL, and had an integrated macro processor. Unlike other contemporary languages such as Pascal, C or BASIC, PL/M had no standard input or output routines. It included features targeted at the low-level hardware specific to the target microprocessors, and as such, it could support direct access to any location in memory, I/O ports and the processor interrupt flags in a very efficient manner. PL/M was the first higher level programming language for microprocessor-based computers and was the original implementation language for the CP/M operating system. Many Intel and Zilog Z80 based embedded systems were programmed in PL/M during the 1970s and 1980s. For instance, the firmware of the Service Processor component of CISC AS/400 was written in PL/M.The original PL/M compiler targeted the Intel 8008. An updated version generated code for the 8080 processor, which would also run on the newer Intel 8085 as well as on the Zilog Z80 family (as it is backward-compatible with the 8080). Later followed compilers for the Intel 8048 and Intel 8051-microcontroller family as well as for the 8086 (8088), 80186 (80188) and subsequent 8086-based processors, including the advanced 80286 and the 32-bit 80386. There were also PL/M compilers developed for later microcontrollers, such as the Intel 8061 and 8096 / MCS-96 architecture family. While some PL/M compilers were «native», meaning that they ran on systems using that same microprocessor, e.g. for the Intel ISIS operating system, there were also «cross compilers», for instance PLMX, which ran on other operating environments such as CP/M, Microsoft’s DOS, and Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX/VMS.PL/M is no longer supported by Intel, but aftermarket tools like PL/M-to-C translators exist (for examples, see External links, below).

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  9. LaTeX ( LAH-tekh or LAY-tekh; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system. When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text found in WYSIWYG («what you see is what you get») word processors like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer and Apple Pages. The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references. A TeX distribution such as TeX Live or MikTeX is used to produce an output file (such as PDF or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution. Within the typesetting system, its name is stylised as LaTeX.LaTeX is widely used in academia for the communication and publication of scientific documents in many fields, including mathematics, statistics, computer science, engineering, chemistry, physics, economics, linguistics, quantitative psychology, philosophy, and political science. It also has a prominent role in the preparation and publication of books and articles that contain complex multilingual materials, such as Tamil, Sanskrit and Greek. LaTeX uses the TeX typesetting program for formatting its output, and is itself written in the TeX macro language.LaTeX can be used as a standalone document preparation system or as an intermediate format. In the latter role, for example, it is sometimes used as part of a pipeline for translating DocBook and other XML-based formats to PDF. The typesetting system offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing of tables and figures, chapter and section headings, the inclusion of graphics, page layout, indexing and bibliographies.Like TeX, LaTeX started as a writing tool for mathematicians and computer scientists, but from early in its development it has also been taken up by scholars who needed to write documents that include complex math expressions or non-Latin scripts, such as Arabic, Sanskrit and Chinese.LaTeX is intended to provide a high-level language that accesses the power of TeX in an easier way for writers. In short, TeX handles the layout side, while LaTeX handles the content side for document processing. LaTeX comprises a collection of TeX macros and a program to process LaTeX documents. Because the plain TeX formatting commands are elementary, it provides authors with ready-made commands for formatting and layout requirements such as chapter headings, footnotes, cross-references and bibliographies.LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport at SRI International. The current version is LaTeX2e (stylised as LaTeX2?). LaTeX is free software and is distributed under the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL).

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  10. AMOS BASIC is a dialect of the BASIC programming language implemented on the Amiga computer. AMOS BASIC was published by Europress Software and originally written by Fran?ois Lionet with Constantin Sotiropoulos.

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  11. Curl is a reflective object-oriented programming language for interactive web applications whose goal is to provide a smoother transition between formatting and programming. It makes it possible to embed complex objects in simple documents without needing to switch between programming languages or development platforms. The Curl implementation initially consisted of just an interpreter, but a compiler was added later.Curl combines text markup (as in HTML), scripting (as in JavaScript), and heavy-duty computing (as in Java, C#, or C++) within one unified framework. It is used in a range of internal enterprise, B2B, and B2C applications.Curl programs may be compiled into Curl applets, that are viewed using the Curl RTE, a runtime environment with a plugin for web browsers. Currently, it is supported on Microsoft Windows, Linux, and macOS. Curl supports «detached applets», which is a web deployed applet which runs on the user’s desktop independent of a browser window much as in Silverlight 3 and Adobe AIR.

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  12. Hermesis a language for distributed programmingthat was developed at IBM’s Thomas J. Watson Research Center from 1986 through 1992,with an open-source compiler and run-time system.Hermes’ primary features included:Language support of processes and interprocess communication.Compile-time verification that operations use initialized data.Representation-independent data aggregates called tables.Lack of pointers.The compile-time checking of data initialization, called «typestate analysis», is an early precedent for the definite assignment analysis performed by Java, Cyclone and C#.Hermes and its predecessor, NIL (Network Implementation Language), were the earliest programming languages supporting this form of initialization checking.Typestate was actually used more extensively, to generate compiler-inserted «delete» operations.

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  13. ABC is an imperative general-purpose programming language and programming environment developed at CWI, Netherlands by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, and Steven Pemberton. It is interactive, structured, high-level, and intended to be used instead of BASIC, Pascal, or AWK. It is not meant to be a systems-programming language but is intended for teaching or prototyping.The language had a major influence on the design of the Python programming language; Guido van Rossum, who developed Python, previously worked for several years on the ABC system in the mid 1980s.

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  14. Nice is an object-oriented programming language released under the GNU General Public License.It features a powerful type system which can help eliminate many common bugs, such as null pointer dereferences and invalid casts, by detecting potential runtime errors at compile-time; the goal of the designers was to provide safety features comparable to those found in languages such as ML and Haskell, but using a more conventional syntax.Nice aims to be feature-rich, and as such, in addition to the common features of modern object-oriented programming languages, it implements contracts in the style of Eiffel, class extensibility through multimethods, and many concepts drawn from functional programming such as anonymous functions, tuples, pattern matching (“value dispatch”), and parametric polymorphism.Source programs are compiled to Java bytecode, and can therefore interact with libraries written in Java and other programming languages targeting the Java Virtual Machine.Work on the Nice language appears to have slowed since early 2006.

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  15. MHEG-5, or ISO/IEC 13522-5, is part of a set of international standards relating to the presentation of multimedia information, standardised by the Multimedia and Hypermedia Experts Group (MHEG). It is most commonly used as a language to describe interactive television services.

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  16. High Level Assembly (HLA) is a high-level assembly language developed by Randall Hyde. It allows the use of higher-level language constructs to aid both beginners and advanced assembly developers. It fully supports advanced data types and object-oriented programming. It uses a syntax loosely based on several high-level programming languages (HLLs), such as Pascal, Ada, Modula-2, and C++, to allow creating readable assembly language programs, and to allow HLL programmers to learn HLA as fast as possible.

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  17. AutoIt is a freeware automation language for Microsoft Windows. In its earliest release, the software was primarily intended to create automation scripts (sometimes called macros) for Microsoft Windows programs but has since grown to include enhancements in both programming language design and overall functionality.While the scripting language in AutoIt 1 and 2 was statement-driven, designed primarily for simulating user interaction, from version 3 onwards the AutoIt syntax is similar to that found in the BASIC family of languages. In this form, AutoIt is a general-purpose, third-generation programming language with a classical data model and a variant data type that can store several types of data, including arrays. While version 1 and 2 were compatible with Windows 95, 98, ME, NT4, 2000, XP, 2003, Vista, Windows 7, support for operating systems older than Windows 2000 was discontinued with the release of v3.3.0 in December 2008. Currently AutoIt is also compatible with Windows 2008, Windows 8, Windows 2012, Windows 10, and the minimal requirement is Windows XP SP3.An AutoIt automation script can be converted into a compressed, stand-alone executable which can be run on computers that do not have the AutoIt interpreter installed. A wide range of function libraries (known as UDFs, or «User Defined Functions») are also included as standard or are available from the website to add specialized functionality. AutoIt is also distributed with an IDE based on the free SciTE editor. The compiler and help text are fully integrated and provide a de facto standard environment for developers using AutoIt.

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  18. MIMIC, known in capitalized form only, is a former simulation computer language developed 1964 by H. E. Petersen, F. J. Sansom and L. M. Warshawsky of Systems Engineering Group within the Air Force Materiel Command at the Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, United States. It is an expression-oriented continuous block simulation language, but capable of incorporating blocks of FORTRAN-like algebra.MIMIC is a further development from MIDAS (Modified Integration Digital Analog Simulator), which represented analog computer design. Written completely in FORTRAN but one routine in COMPASS, and ran on Control Data supercomputers, MIMIC is capable of solving much larger simulation models.With MIMIC, ordinary differential equations describing mathematical models in several scientific disciplines as in engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, economics and as well as in social sciences can easily be solved by numerical integration and the results of the analysis are listed or drawn in diagrams. It also enables the analysis of nonlinear dynamic conditions.The MIMIC software package, written as FORTRAN overlay programs, executes input statements of the mathematical model in six consecutive passes. Simulation programs written in MIMIC are compiled rather than interpreted. The core of the simulation package is a variable step numerical integrator of fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Many useful functions related to electrical circuit elements exist besides some mathematical functions found in most scientific programming languages. There is no need to sort the statements in order of dependencies of the variables, since MIMIC does it internally.Parts of the software organized in overlays are:MIMIN (input)– reads in user simulation program and data,MIMCO (compiler) – compiles the user program and creates an in-core array of instructions,MIMSO (sort)– sorts the instructions array after dependencies of variables,MIMAS (assembler) – converts the BCD instructions into machine-oriented code,MIMEX (execute)– executes the user program by integrating,MIMOUT (output)– puts out the data as a list or diagram of data.

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  19. Unicon is a programming language designed by American computer scientist Clint Jeffery with collaborators including Shamim Mohamed, Jafar Al Gharaibeh, Robert Parlett and others. Unicon descended from Icon and a preprocessor for Icon called IDOL. Compared with Icon, Unicon offers better access to the operating system as well as support for object-oriented programming. Unicon began life as a merger of three popular Icon extensions: an OO preprocessor named Idol, a POSIX filesystem and networking interface, and an ODBC facility. The name is shorthand for «Unified Extended Dialect of Icon.»

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  20. The Kaleidoscope programming language is a constraint programming language embedding constraints into an imperative object-oriented language. It adds keywords always, once, and assert..during (formerly while..assert) to make statements about relational invariants. Objects have constraint constructors, which are not methods, to enforce the meanings of user-defined datatypes.There are three versions of Kaleidoscope which show an evolution from declarative to an increasingly imperative style. Differences between them are as follows.

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  21. Programming Language for Business or PL/B is a business-oriented programming language originally called DATABUS and designed by Datapoint in 1972 as an alternative to COBOL because Datapoint’s 8-bit computers could not fit COBOL into their limited memory, and because COBOL did not at the time have facilities to deal with Datapoint’s built-in keyboard and screen.A version of DATABUS became an ANSI standard, and the name PL/B came about when Datapoint chose not to release its trademark on the DATABUS name.

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  22. Magik is an object-oriented programming language that supports multiple inheritance and polymorphism, and it is dynamically typed. It was designed and implemented in 1989 by Arthur Chance of Smallworld Systems Ltd. as part of Smallworld Geographical Information System (GIS). Following Smallworld’s acquisition in 2000, Magik is now is provided by GE Energy, still as part of its Smallworld technology platform.Magik (Inspirational Magik) was originally introduced in 1990 and has been improved and updated over the years. Its current version is 5.1.In July 2012, Magik developers announced that they were in the process of porting Magik language on the Java virtual machine. The successful porting was confirmed by Oracle Corporation in November of the same year.

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  23. Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. It was the main programming language supported by Apple for the macOS and iOS operating systems, and their respective application programming interfaces (APIs) Cocoa and Cocoa Touch until the introduction of Swift.The programming language Objective-C was originally developed in the early 1980s. It was selected as the main language used by NeXT for its NeXTSTEP operating system, from which macOS and iOS are derived. Portable Objective-C programs that do not use the Cocoa or Cocoa Touch libraries, or those using parts that may be ported or reimplemented for other systems, can also be compiled for any system supported by GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) or Clang.Objective-C source code ‘implementation’ program files usually have .m filename extensions, while Objective-C ‘header/interface’ files have .h extensions, the same as C header files. Objective-C++ files are denoted with a .mm file extension.

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  24. LPC (short for Lars Pensj? C) is an object-oriented programming language derived from C and developed originally by Lars Pensj? to facilitate MUD building on LPMuds. Though designed for game development, its flexibility has led to it being used for a variety of purposes, and to its evolution into the language Pike.LPC syntax places it in the family of C-like languages, with C and C++ its strongest influences.

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  25. Not eXactly C, or NXC, is a high-level programming language for the Lego Mindstorms NXT designed by John Hansen in 2006. NXC, which is short for Not eXactly C, is based on Next Byte Codes, an assembly language. NXC has a syntax like C. The IDE for NXC is the Bricx Command Center.The NXC compiler is available under the Mozilla Public License. A sample code is as shown below:

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  26. Верхняя Дальёль

    Верхняя Дальёль — река в России, протекает в Республике Коми. Устье реки находится в 68 км по правому берегу реки Бол. Ляга. Длина реки составляет 12 км.

    По данным государственного водного реестра России относится к Двинско-Печорскому бассейновому округу, водохозяйственный участок реки — Печора от истока до водомерного поста у посёлка Шердино, речной подбассейн реки — Бассейны притоков Печоры до впадения Усы. Речной бассейн реки — Печора.

    По данным геоинформационной системы водохозяйственного районирования территории РФ, подготовленной Федеральным агентством водных ресурсов:

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